Sylvian fissure

The Sylvian fissure, also known as the lateral sulcus, separates the frontal and parietal lobes superiorly from the temporal lobe inferiorly. The insular cortex is located immediately deep to the Sylvian fissure. 

Anteriorly the fissure courses medially to the 'stem' of the lateral fissure, into which passes the middle cerebral artery and its major branches. Anteriorly it has two branches or 'rami' which extend into, and divide, the frontal operculum.

The anterior ramus (also known as horizontal ramus) separates the pars orbitalis from the pars triangularis, and the ascending ramus (also known as vertical ramus or anterior ascending ramus) separates the pars triangularis form the pars opercularis

The lateral sulcus terminates posteriorly in a bifurcation, with the posterior ascending ramus surrounded by the supramarginal gyrus of the inferior parietal lobule.

History and etymology

The Sylvian fissure is named for Franciscus Sylvius (1614-1672), German/Dutch physician and anatomist, who described it as the "fissura cerebri lateralis Sylvii" 2.

Anatomy: Brain
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Article information

rID: 25406
Section: Anatomy
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Sulcus of Sylvius
  • Lateral sulcus
  • Lateral (Sylvian) sulcus

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