Missed our latest free live-stream? Catch up now with Intracranial Enhancement by Frank Gaillard

Systematic radiographic technical evaluation (mnemonic)

Dr Daniel J Bell and Andrew Murphy et al.

Systematic radiographic technical evaluation is an important aspect to evaluative, effective radiography. It is the process of assessing a radiographic image to ensure it meets a high level of diagnostic standard. Two mnemonics are commonly used when assessing a radiographic image:


Although the use of plain radiographic technical evaluation seems overtly academic, radiographers will subconsciously go over a checklist like this after every examination.


  • P: positioning
  • A: is the anatomical area covered adequately
  • C: collimation present
  • E: exposure is within range
  • M: marker present and correct
  • A: aesthetics
  • N: name is correct 
  • I: identification, ensuring correct patient was imaged
  • M: markers are present and correct
  • A: anatomy of interest is assessed and adequately covered  
  • A: artifacts are noted/assessed for  
  • C: collimation present
  • R: relative position to the central beam (centering)
  • E: exposure is within range
  • A: any additional imaging required? (repeat, supplementary views)
  • P: pathology present that requires specialized projections i.e. horizontal beam hip?
Radiographic views

Article information

rID: 59179
Section: Radiography
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • IMAACREAP (mnemonic)
  • Radiographic assessment
  • Radiographic image evaluation
  • PACEMAN (mnemonic)

ADVERTISEMENT: Supporters see fewer/no ads

Cases and figures

  • Figure 1: over exposure artifact
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Figure 2: pneumothorax on shoulder x-ray
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Figure 3: distal clavicle fracture hidden by x-ray marker
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Figure 4: static electricity artefact
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Figure 5: cooling blanket artefact
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Updating… Please wait.

     Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

     Thank you for updating your details.