Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) refers to a physiological state in patients with a critical non-infectious or infectious illness. It is non-specific and although commonly associated with sepsis can be seen in many life-threatening illnesses.
Two or more of the features below are by definition present 1:
- fever (greater than 38 degrees Celsius) or hypothermia (less than 36 degrees Celsius)
- heart rate of over 90 beats per minute
- respiratory rate over 20 breaths per minute or an arterial CO2 less than 32 mmHg
- white-cell count over 12⨉109 cells/L, under 4⨉109 cells/L, or containing over 10% band forms
Conditions capable of producing SIRS include 2:
- serious infection (e.g. cholecystitis)
- abdominal compartment syndrome
History and etymology
The definition of SIRS was created during the 1992 meeting of the American College of Chest Physicians and the Society of Critical Care Medicine 1.
- 1. Bone RC, Balk RA, Cerra FB, Dellinger RP, Fein AM, Knaus WA, Schein RM, Sibbald WJ. Definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. The ACCP/SCCM Consensus Conference Committee. American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine. (1992) Chest. 101 (6): 1644-55. Pubmed
- 2. Horeczko, Timothy, Green, Jeffrey P, Panacek, Edward A. Epidemiology of the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) in the Emergency Department. (2014) Western Journal of Emergency Medicine: Integrating Emergency Care with Population Health. 15 (3): 329-36. doi:10.5811/westjem.2013.9.18064 - Pubmed