T cell prolymphocytic leukaemia (T-PLL) is a rare and unusual haematological malignancy.
It represents around 2% of all mature lymphocytic leukaemias in adults over the age of 30 1. It usually affects older adults with an average age at presentation being around 65 years. There may be a slight male predominance.
While there can be wide clinical spectrum, many patients tend to present with hepatosplenomegaly and and generalised lymphadenopathy.
It is characterised by the proliferation of small- to medium-sized prolymphocytes of post-thymic origin. There can be a wide spectrum where involvement of the peripheral blood, bone marrow, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and skin can occur.
The imaging spectrum can also be variable with hepatosplenomegaly and and generalised lymphadenopathy being common. Pleural effusions and cutaneous lesions may also be detectable in a small but sizable number of patients.
Treatment and prognosis
Clinical course is often very aggressive with poor response to conventional chemotherapy. Short survival rates have usually been reported with the usual potential long-term curative treatment being haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Treatment with purine analogues and alemtuzumab have been reported to have significantly higher response rates and improved survival 2-3.
- 1. Graham RL, Cooper B, Krause JR. T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2013;26 (1): 19-21. Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 2. Dearden CE. T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma. 2009;9 Suppl 3: S239-43. doi:10.3816/CLM.2009.s.018 - Pubmed citation
- 3. Khot A, Dearden C. T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2014;9 (3): 365-71. doi:10.1586/14737220.127.116.115 - Pubmed citation
- 4. Adelson RT, Samy RN, Lindberg G. T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia presenting as an ear canal mass. Otol. Neurotol. 2005;25 (6): 1006-8. Pubmed citation
- 5. Matutes E, Garcia Talavera J, O'Brien M et-al. The morphological spectrum of T-prolymphocytic leukaemia. Br. J. Haematol. 1986;64 (1): 111-24. Pubmed citation