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The telencephalon (plural: telencephala or telencephalons) is the most anterior region of the primitive brain.
Together with the diencephalon, the telencephalon develops from the prosencephalon, the primitive forebrain 1.
The telencephalon is composed of surface grey matter (the cerebral cortex) and underlying white matter, with deep masses of grey matter 2. The corpus callosum facilitates communication between the two hemispheres 3.
The telencephalon comprises:
- two cerebral hemispheres including the lateral ventricles
- the subcortical structures of the limbic system consisting of:
- basal ganglia consisting of:
- white matter tracts consisting of:
Atelencephaly is a rare disorder that results when the derivatives of the telencephalon are absent or dysplastic.