Citation, DOI & article data
Testicular cancers are the most common malignancy in men between the ages of 20 and 34 years.
Testicular cancer is uncommon, accounting for less than 1% of all internal organ malignancies 2.
The commonest histology of the tumor varies with the age of affected individuals. Over 90% of all tumors of the testes are primary germ cell tumors, and as such young adults are the overall most frequently involved group:
- 1st decade: yolk sac tumor and testicular teratoma
- 2nd decade: choriocarcinoma
- 3rd decade: embryonal cell carcinoma
- 4th decade: seminoma
- ≥7th decade: lymphoma (usually non-Hodgkin lymphoma) and spermatocytic seminoma
- Klinefelter syndrome
- family history
- previous history of contralateral testicular tumor
- infections: HIV, mumps, etc.
In a recent large case-control study, the commonest symptoms associated with a diagnosis of testicular cancer were a swollen testis/scrotum and/or a lump 4.
- primary tumor: 94% of all tumors
testicular germ cell tumor: 90% of primary tumors
testicular seminoma: 40% of germ cell tumors 1
- non-seminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT): 60% of germ cell tumors
- testicular seminoma: 40% of germ cell tumors 1
- testicular non-germ cell tumor: 10% of primary tumors
- primary testicular lymphoma
- testicular germ cell tumor: 90% of primary tumors
- secondary tumor: 6% of all tumors
Regional lymph nodes
The following retroperitoneal lymph node stations are considered regional:
The left and right testes have differing lymphatic drainage. The left testis primarily drains through the para-aortic lymph nodes. The right testis primarily drains through the aortocaval nodes.
Metastases from testicular tumors most commonly occur to the lymphatic system followed by lung, liver and bone, and other visceral sites.
See the individual articles.
- 1. Sohaib SA, Koh DM, Husband JE. The role of imaging in the diagnosis, staging, and management of testicular cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008;191 (2): 387-95. doi:10.2214/AJR.07.2758 - Pubmed citation
- 2. Raghavan D. Germ cell tumors. Pmph USA Ltd. (2003) ISBN:1550090828. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 3. Coursey Moreno C, Small WC, Camacho JC et-al. Testicular tumors: what radiologists need to know-differential diagnosis, staging, and management. Radiographics. 2015;35 (2): 400-15. doi:10.1148/rg.352140097 - Pubmed citation
- 4. Shephard EA, Hamilton WT. Selection of men for investigation of possible testicular cancer in primary care: a large case-control study using electronic patient records. (2018) The British journal of general practice : the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners. 68 (673): e559-e565. doi:10.3399/bjgp18X697949 - Pubmed