Testicular cancer

Last revised by Dr Ammar Ashraf on 06 Aug 2022

Testicular cancers are the most common malignancy in men between the ages of 20 and 34 years.

Testicular cancer is uncommon, accounting for less than 1% of all internal organ malignancies 2.

The commonest histology of the tumor varies with the age of affected individuals. Over 90% of all tumors of the testes are primary germ cell tumors, and as such young adults are the overall most frequently involved group:

See: risk factors for testicular germ cell tumors

In a recent large case-control study, the commonest symptoms associated with a diagnosis of testicular cancer were a swollen testis/scrotum and/or a lump 4

The following retroperitoneal lymph node stations are considered regional:

  • aortocaval
  • para-aortic
  • paracaval
  • preaortic
  • precaval
  • retroaortic
  • retrocaval

The left and right testes have differing lymphatic drainage. The left testis primarily drains through the para-aortic lymph nodes. The right testis primarily drains through the aortocaval nodes.

Metastases from testicular tumors most commonly occur to the lymphatic system followed by lung, liver and bone, and other visceral sites.

See the individual articles.

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Cases and figures

  • Figure 1: gross specimen of a teratoma
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  • Case 2: seminoma
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  • Case 3: testicular teratoma
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  • Case 4: testicular choriocarcinoma
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  • Case 5: testicular mixed germ cell tumor
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  • Case 6: seminoma
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  • Case 7: metastatic mixed germ cell tumor of testis
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  • Case 8: in an undescended testis
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  • Case 9: primary testicular lymphoma
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  • Case 10: testicular seminoma
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  • Case 11: mixed germ cell tumor
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  • Case 12: primary testicular lymphoma
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