Testicular torsion occurs when a testicle torts on the spermatic cord resulting in the cutting off of blood supply. The most common symptom is acute testicular pain and the most common underlying cause, a bell-clapper deformity. The diagnosis is often made clinically but if it is in doubt, an ultrasound is helpful in confirming the diagnosis. Expedient diagnosis and surgical management are critical if the testis is to be salvaged.
Differentiation between testicular torsion and epididymo-orchitis is a clinical challenge, since scrotal pain, swelling, and redness or tenderness are clinical symptoms common to these two entities.
Anatomically there are two types of testicular torsion which occur in different age groups 2-3:
- extra-vaginal (supra-vaginal)
- torsion occurs at the level of the external inguinal ring
- seen in neonates
- more common variety due to bell clapper deformity (see below)
- typically occurs in adolescents and young adults
The majority of cases of testicular torsion are either spontaneous or in the setting of minor/incidental trauma. In approximately 5-8% of cases, scrotal trauma is significant 1. The hemiscrotum may be swollen or erythematous.
The onset of severe testicular pain is sudden and is not relieved by elevation of the scrotum 3. There should be no fever or urethral discharge.
It is important to recognise that some patients may present with intermittent symptoms due to spontaneous detorsion, so-called intermittent testicular torsion (ITT). This subentity has been increasingly reported in the literature. Short periods of acute groin pain accompanied by vomiting and subsequent spontaneous relief may be typical patient history in these cases 5-7.
Physical examination may reveal elevation of the affected testicle, an absence of the cremasteric reflex, transverse position of the testicle, anterior rotation of epididymis, and pain relief with successful manual detorsion.
In the neonatal form of torsion (extravaginal or supravaginal) the whole content of the hemiscrotum rotates around the spermatic cord at the level of the external inguinal ring 2-3.
In adolescents or young adults the more common torsion in intravaginal. The most common underlying abnormality is the so-called bell clapper deformity which allows the testis (and attached epididymis) extensive mobility, and thus places it at risk of twisting around the spermatic cord.
Initially, torsion is sufficient only to obstruct venous outflow (incomplete torsion, less than 360 degrees), resulting in the gradual increase in intratesticular pressure and resistance. Over time and with an additional twisting of the cord (greater than 360 degrees), the arterial inflow is also obstructed, and the testis becomes entirely ischaemic 1-3.
Ultrasound is the modality of choice for evaluating the potentially torsed testis. It is simultaneously able to assess the structure of the testis as well as the vascularity, all without subjecting the gametes to ionising radiation.
The most important part of the examination is the comparison to the normal side (see testicular ultrasound technique).
The key findings of a torsed testis include 1-3:
- twisting of the spermatic cord, reflecting pathomechanism and likely the most specific and sensitive finding in both complete and incomplete torsion 3,5
- optimal technique dynamic grayscale with a downward movement of transducer resulting in whirlpool sign (for a beautiful example see case 7)
- twisting or whirling may also be appreciated on Doppler 5
- altered blood flow
- incomplete torsion
- elevated resistive index (RI > 0.75) 3
- to and fro flow
- complete torsion
- an absence of blood flows in both the testis and epididymis
- incomplete torsion
- increase in the size of the testis and epididymis
- homogeneous echotexture
- early finding, before necrosis
- heterogeneous echotexture
- a late finding (after 24 hours), implies necrosis
- hypoechoic regions represent necrosis
- hyperechoic regions represent haemorrhage (if testis is reperfused)
- reactive hydrocoele
- reactive thickening of the scrotal skin with hyperaemia and increased flow on colour Doppler examination 2
- peripheral testicular neovascularisation
- only seen after a number of days and represents recruiting and enlargement of small peripheral collaterals
- only peripheral and patchy portions of the testis are perfused 2
It is important to realise that epididymo-orchitis can closely mimic the appearances of torsion as well as spontaneously detorted testis (see differential diagnosis below). The only way to exclude torsion from the differential is if changes are entirely confined to the epididymis with a completely normal testis 2.
- sensitivity of the exam is 80-90%
- dynamic flow imaging at 2-5 second intervals for 1 minute in the vascular phase
- 5-minute intervals for tissue phase
Treatment and prognosis
The key to successful treatment is rapid diagnosis and surgical intervention. If diagnosed early enough, the testis can be distorted with little damage. If the testis has necrosed, then orchidectomy is required.
Likelihood of salvage of the testis is directly related to the time between onset and detorsion (whether it be surgical or spontaneous) 3:
- <6 hours: ~100% salvage
- 6-12 hours: 50%
- 12-24 hours: 20%
As intermittent testicular torsion (ITT) ultimately may progress to acute infarction. Elective testicular fixation may be indicated and has demonstrated excellent results in smaller series 6-7.
General imaging differentials include:
epididymo-orchitis can mimic both
- torted testis due to increased intra-testicular pressure
- spontaneous detorsion with reactive hyperaemia
- avascular heterogeneous areas of the testis
- enlarged heterogeneous testis
- usually, flow is present, but some areas may be necrosed and thus avascular
torsion of the epididymal appendix
- this is more of a clinical differential diagnosis
- testis and epididymis are normal
- small pedunculated avascular nodule may be seen (very tender)
acute idiopathic scrotal oedema
- scrotal wall swelling and oedema is characteristic
- can be unilateral or bilateral
- marked hypervascularity of the thickened scrotal wall gives rise to the "fountain sign" on colour Doppler ultrasound
- testis and epididymis are normal in appearance
- testicular trauma
- hernia complications
- 1. Bhatt S, Dogra VS. Role of US in testicular and scrotal trauma. Radiographics. 2008;28 (6): 1617-29. doi:10.1148/rg.286085507 - Pubmed citation
- 2. Wolf K. Color duplex sonography, principles and clinical applications. Thieme. (1995) ISBN:0865775427. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 3. Hamm B, Beyersdorff D, Asbach P et-al. Urogenital Imaging. George Thieme Verlag. (2008) ISBN:3131451513. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 4. McGahan JP, Goldberg BB. Diagnostic ultrasound. Informa Health Care. (2008) ISBN:1420069780. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 5. Vijayaraghavan SB. Sonographic differential diagnosis of acute scrotum: real-time whirlpool sign, a key sign of torsion. J Ultrasound Med. 2006;25 (5): 563-74. Pubmed citation
- 6. Eaton SH, Cendron MA, Estrada CR et-al. Intermittent testicular torsion: diagnostic features and management outcomes. J. Urol. 2005;174 (4 Pt 2): 1532-5. Pubmed citation
- 7. Hayn MH, Herz DB, Bellinger MF et-al. Intermittent torsion of the spermatic cord portends an increased risk of acute testicular infarction. J. Urol. 2008;180 (4): 1729-32. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2008.03.101 - Pubmed citation
Ultrasound - testicular and scrotal
- ultrasound (introduction)
testicular and scrotal ultrasound
unilateral testicular lesion
- testicular torsion
- testicular rupture
- germ cell tumours of the testis
- sex cord / stromal tumours of the testis
- testicular cyst
- bilateral testicular lesion
- paratesticular lesions
- tubular ectasia of the rete testis
- cystadenoma of the rete testis
- testicular sarcoidosis
- testicular tuberculosis
- spermatic cord
- fibrous pseudotumour of the scrotum
- scrotal leiomyosarcoma
- testicular adrenal rest tumours (TARTs)
- tunica vaginalis testis mesothelioma
- splenogonadal fusion
- unilateral testicular lesion