Thyroid cartilage

Last revised by Yoshi Yu on 9 Apr 2023

The thyroid cartilage is the largest of the cartilages of the larynx, with its superior border sitting at the level of the C4 vertebra.

The thyroid cartilage consists of bilateral flattened laminae that are fused in the anterior midline to form the laryngeal prominence (Adam's apple). Each lamina possesses an oblique ridge laterally, with a tubercle superiorly and inferiorly. The posterior border of the laminae are free and project upwards and downwards as the superior and inferior horns. The superior horns attach to the hyoid bone via the thyrohyoid membrane and lateral thyrohyoid ligaments. The inferior horns directly articulate with the cricoid cartilage at the cricothyroid joint.

  • thyroid cartilage calcification 4

  • cyst-like change in the thyroid cartilage 5

  • agenesis of the thyroid horns 6

  • triticeal cartilage 6

  • ectopic superior thyroid horns 6

  • lateral thyrohyoid ossification 6

  • terminal segmentation of the thyroid horns 6

  • buckled thyroid cartilage 7

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Cases and figures

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