TI-RADS is a risk stratification system for classifying thyroid lesions and was recently recognized in an American College of Radiology (ACR) white paper1. Its use is being advocated similar to BI-RADS category for breast lesions.
In 2017, a white paper2 was released by the ACR committee on thyroid imaging with a standardised scoring system, with guidance on fine needle aspiration (FNA) and follow-up.
See ACR TI-RADS.
Classification system has been proposed by Horvath et al. 3, with a modified recommendation from Jin Kwak et al. 4.
Similar to BI-RADS category, sonographic TI-RADS classification is as follows:
- TI-RADS 1: normal thyroid gland
- TI-RADS 2: benign lesions
- TI-RADS 3: probably benign lesions
- TI-RADS 4: suspicious lesions (subclassified as 4a, 4b, and later 4c 4 with increasing risk of malignancy)
- TI-RADS 5: probably malignant lesions (more than 80% risk of malignancy)
- TI-RADS 6: biopsy proven malignancy
TI-RADS 2 category
- avascular anechoic lesion with echogenic specks (colloid type I)
- vascular heteroechoic non-expansile, non-encapsulated nodules with peripheral halo (colloid type II)
- isoechoic or heteroechoic, non-encapsulated, expansile vascular nodules (colloid type III)
These conditions have 0% risk of malignancy.
TI-RADS 3 category
- hyperechoic, iso-echoic or hypoechoic nodules, with partially formed capsule and peripheral vascularity, usually in setting of Hashimoto thyroiditis (Hashimoto pseudonodule)
Modified TIRADS classification 4 have simplified TIRADS 3 category as none of the suspicious malignant sonographic features described below. These lesions are mostly benign with <5% risk of malignancy 3.
TI-RADS 4 and 5 categories
These categories are based on five suspicious sonographic features of malignancy:
- solid component
- high stiffness of nodule on elastography if available
- markedly hypoechoic nodule
- microlobulations or irregular margins
- taller-than-wider shape
- TI-RADS 4a: one suspicious feature
- TI-RADS 4b: two suspicious features
- TI-RADS 4c: three/four suspicious features
- TI-RADS 5: all five suspicious features
TI-RADS 4a has 5-10% risk of malignancy, 4b and 4c may have 10-80% risk of malignancy. TI-RADS 5 category lesion have >80% risk of malignancy 3.
- ACR Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR TI-RADS)
- BIRADS classification system
Please note: At the time of writing this article (mid 2016), this classification system in any version has not been formally accepted by ACR or any global radiological convention. Yet this classification system is well reported. Article is based on proposed classification systems, which should be known to the radiologists, and may help them in characterizing thyroid lesions. It may be used for risk stratification on sole discretion of personnel or institution, and should be complemented by FNAC on need basis.
- 1. Grant EG, Tessler FN, Hoang JK et-al. Thyroid Ultrasound Reporting Lexicon: White Paper of the ACR Thyroid Imaging, Reporting and Data System (TIRADS) Committee. J Am Coll Radiol. 2015;12 (12): 1272-9. doi:10.1016/j.jacr.2015.07.011 - Pubmed citation
- 2. Tessler FN, Middleton WD, Grant EG, et al. ACR Thyroid Imaging, Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS): White Paper of the ACR TI-RADS Committee. J Am Coll Radiol. In press; 2017. doi.org:10.1016/j.jacr.2017.01.046
- 3. Horvath E, Majlis S, Rossi R et-al. An ultrasonogram reporting system for thyroid nodules stratifying cancer risk for clinical management. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2009;94 (5): 1748-51. doi:10.1210/jc.2008-1724 - Pubmed citation
- 4. Kwak JY, Han KH, Yoon JH et-al. Thyroid imaging reporting and data system for US features of nodules: a step in establishing better stratification of cancer risk. Radiology. 2011;260 (3): 892-9. doi:10.1148/radiol.11110206 - Pubmed citation
- 5. Friedrich-Rust M, Meyer G, Dauth N et-al. Interobserver Agreement of Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TIRADS) and Strain Elastography for the Assessment of Thyroid Nodules. PLoS ONE. 24;8 (10): e77927. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077927 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 6. Russ G, Royer B, Bigorgne C et-al. Prospective evaluation of thyroid imaging reporting and data system on 4550 nodules with and without elastography. Eur. J. Endocrinol. 2013;168 (5): 649-55. doi:10.1530/EJE-12-0936 - Pubmed citation
Related Radiopaedia articles
- thyroid inflammatory disease
- thyroid neoplasms
- thyroid nodules
- assessment of thyroid lesions
- postoperative assessment after thyroid cancer surgery
- ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of the thyroid