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The tibial nerve is one of two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve and supplies the leg and foot with motor and sensory supply.
origin: one of two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve in the lower third of the thigh
course: courses through the popliteal fossa, passing deep to gastrocnemius to pass under the flexor retinaculum at the ankle
sensory supply: articular branches to knee, ankle and foot joints; cutaneous branches to posterior calf and sole of the foot
Fibers arise from the anterior divisions of the L4 to S3 nerve roots in the sacral plexus to form the tibial component of the sciatic nerve. It forms its own discrete nerve after the terminal division of the sciatic nerve, usually in the lower third of the thigh.
Passes straight down through the popliteal fossa, posterior to the popliteal vessels, to pass inferiorly between the heads of gastrocnemius and deep to the soleus muscle. In the posterior calf, it continues inferiorly in the midline, deep to the soleus and superficial to the tibialis posterior muscles. At the ankle, it passes under the flexor retinaculum in the tarsal tunnel, enclosed in a synovial sheath containing the posterior tibial vessels. At the level of the medial malleolus it divides into three terminal branches: medial and lateral plantar nerves, and the medial calcaneal nerve.
Branches and supply
articular twigs to the knee, ankle and foot joints
medial sural cutaneous nerve (which goes on to form the sural nerve along with the lateral sural cutaneous nerve from the common peroneal nerve)
terminal branches in the foot
tibial nerve schwannoma
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