Tibiofemoral joint

Last revised by Henry Knipe on 13 May 2024

The tibiofemoral joint is a modified hinge synovial joint between the distal femur and the proximal tibia, and forms part of the knee joint.

The tibiofemoral joint is a hinge synovial joint that joins the distal femur to the proximal tibia.

The articulation occurs between the medial and lateral femoral condyles and the medial and lateral facets of the tibial condyles 2.

The medial and lateral menisci increase the depth and stability, and compressive force bearing and absorption of the joint.

The joint capsule consists of a thin fibrous sheath, which attaches at the distal femur and joins at the proximal tibia, enclosing the synovial fluid 1.

There are a number of different muscles that permit flexion, extension, and internal and external rotation of the knee joint. See: movements of the knee.

Twelve bursae exist near the tibiofemoral joint. These are located anterior, lateral, medial, and posterior to the tibiofemoral joint, and may communicate or non-communicate with the joint. See: knee bursae.

Branches of the femoral, popliteal, and circumflex fibular arteries, and posterior recurrent branches of posterior tibial artery form a peri-articular genicular anastomosis, which in turn provides blood supply to the tibiofemoral joint1

Articular branches of femoral, obturator, common fibular, tibial, and saphenous nerves constitute the nerve supply to the tibiofemoral joint1.

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