Timed barium esophagogram
Citation, DOI & article data
The timed barium esophagogram (TBO) is a simple physiologic assessment and objective method for assessing the esophageal emptying used in patients with suspected achalasia and to evaluate and follow up patients who have been treated with myotomy or pneumatic dilatation1,3.
Several techniques of TBO have been described in the literature with minor variations1-6. After the overnight fasting before TBO, the primary method is similar to the usual barium swallow, and the entire study is performed in the erect posture using a standard radiography machine. Still, it includes taking several sequential images on the left posterior oblique position in 1, 2-3 (optional), and 5 minutes intervals after a swallow of (usually 100 to 250 mL) low density barium suspension (45% weight by volume) within 15-20 seconds.
The height and width of the barium column are measured on taken images to assess the esophageal emptying. Some authors have used the area of the barium column.
- 1. Neyaz Z, Gupta M, Ghoshal U. How to Perform and Interpret Timed Barium Esophagogram. J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2013;19(2):251-6. doi:10.5056/jnm.2013.19.2.251 - Pubmed
- 2. Kostic S, Rice T, Baker M et al. Timed Barium Esophagogram: A Simple Physiologic Assessment for Achalasia. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2000;120(5):935-46. doi:10.1067/mtc.2000.110463 - Pubmed
- 3. Ghoshal U, Gupta M, Verma A et al. High-Resolution Manometry is Comparable to Timed Barium Esophagogram for Assessing Response to Pneumatic Dilation in Patients with Achalasia. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2015;34(2):144-51. doi:10.1007/s12664-015-0551-x - Pubmed
- 4. Chung J, Park H, Yu J et al. A Comparison of Esophagography and Esophageal Transit Scintigraphy in the Evaluation of Usefulness of Endoscopic Pneumatic Dilatation in Achalasia. Acta Radiol. 2008;49(5):498-505. doi:10.1080/02841850802010741 - Pubmed
- 5. Vaezi M, Baker M, Achkar E, Richter J. Timed Barium Oesophagram: Better Predictor of Long Term Success After Pneumatic Dilation in Achalasia Than Symptom Assessment. Gut. 2002;50(6):765-70. doi:10.1136/gut.50.6.765 - Pubmed
- 6. Oezcelik A, Hagen J, Halls J et al. An Improved Method of Assessing Esophageal Emptying Using the Timed Barium Study Following Surgical Myotomy for Achalasia. J Gastrointest Surg. 2008;13(1):14-8. doi:10.1007/s11605-008-0730-5 - Pubmed