Toxic leukoencephalopathy (mnemonic)

Last revised by Rohit Sharma on 21 Feb 2024

A mnemonic to remember the more common causes of toxic leukoencephalopathy is:

  • CHOICES​ 1


  • C: chemotherapy (e.g. methotrexate)

  • H: heroin

  • O: other opioids

  • I: immunosuppressant drugs or imidazole

  • C: cocaine

  • E: ethanol or environmental (e.g. carbon monoxide)

  • S: splenial lesions (reversible secondary to: CLOCCs, antiseizure medications, chemotherapy, immunosuppressant drugs, etc.)

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