Last revised by Joshua Yap on 18 Apr 2023

Toxoplasmosis is a common worldwide parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. It is usually an asymptomatic infection, but it is related to several sequelae when acquired in utero, or related to cerebral abscesses due to its reactivation in immunocompromised patients (e.g. HIV/AIDS).

Please refer to the following articles for further discussion:

25-30% of the world's population is estimated to be infected by T. gondii, with a large range of prevalence between countries (10-80%) 1

Patients typically present with fever, headache, and malaise. They may later develop personality changes and seizures.

Human infection occurs via three primary routes 3:

  • ingestion of infected meat that has been inadequately cooked

  • ingestion of oocysts contained within feces passed by an infected cat

  • direct transmission from a woman to her fetus

Please refer to the following articles:

The parasite was first described by Charles Nicolle and Louis Manceaux in 1909 2

ADVERTISEMENT: Supporters see fewer/no ads