Tuberculosis encompasses an enormously wide disease spectrum affecting multiple organs and body systems predominantly caused by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A small proportion can also be caused by Mycobacterium bovis.
Although tuberculosis continues to be very common in developing nations. Approximately 10 million people globally per year have positive exposure to tuberculosis 6. In Western industrialised populations it has become uncommon but is increasing in prevalence among immunocompromised patients, particularly those with HIV/AIDS. An estimated 5% HIV patients have Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections, which become clinically apparent when CD4+ counts drop to below 350 cells/mm3, typically with findings of post-primary pulmonary tuberculosis 2.
Clinical presentation will depend upon the morphology of infection and location. These are discussed in separate articles.
History and etymology
Aristotle is usually credited as being the first to recognize the contagious nature of the disease. Discovery of the specific infectious agent, the tubercle bacillus (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), did not occur for several millennia until it was isolated by Robert Koch in 1882 4. M. tuberculosis was previously known as Koch bacillus and tuberculosis known as Koch disease 5. It was also historically known as consumption due to the severe associated weight loss.
- 1. Burrill J, Williams CJ, Bain G et-al. Tuberculosis: a radiologic review. Radiographics. 27 (5): 1255-73. doi:10.1148/rg.275065176 - Pubmed citation
- 2. Kazerooni EA, Gross BH. Cardiopulmonary imaging. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (2004) ISBN:0781736552. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 3. Jung YY, Kim JK, Cho KS. Genitourinary tuberculosis: comprehensive cross-sectional imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2005;184 (1): 143-50. AJR Am J Roentgenol (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 4. Leung AN. Pulmonary tuberculosis: the essentials. Radiology. 1999;210 (2): 307-22. Radiology (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 5. Join AMMA. History of Tuberculosis. Part 2–the Sanatoria and the Discoveries of the Tubercle Bacillus. Journal of Military and Veterans' Health. 2014;22(2). Available from: http://jmvh.org/article/history-of-tuberculosis-part-2-the-sanatoria-and-the-discoveries-of-the-tubercle-bacillus/
- 6. Suárez I, Fünger SM, Kröger S, Rademacher J, Fätkenheuer G, Rybniker J. The Diagnosis and Treatment of Tuberculosis. (2019) Deutsches Arzteblatt international. 116 (43): 729-735. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2019.0729 - Pubmed
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