Tumor lysis syndrome

Last revised by Yuranga Weerakkody on 21 Feb 2022

Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is an entity representing a constellation of laboratory and clinical derangements inclusive of:

  • hyperuricemia
  • hyperphosphatemia
  • hypocalcemia and
  • hyperkalemia

It is considered an oncological emergency and can occur following treatment of malignancies with high cellular turnover. This results in rapid tumor cell death and is most commonly noted in hematologic malignancies such as acute lymphocytic leukemia and high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. It has occasionally been reported with solid organ malignancies.


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