Twin embolization syndrome
Citation, DOI & article data
It was traditionally thought to result from the passage of thromboplastic material into the circulation of the surviving twin which causes ischemic structural defects in various organs (particularly the highly vascularized organs such as the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary system). An acute hemodynamic shift from live to dead fetus resulting in hypoperfusion is more recently thought to play a role 3.
There is usually an underlying twin-twin transfusion syndrome as a causative association.
The presence of a dead twin associated with a surviving twin with various anomalies may suggest the diagnosis. Such anomalies include :
Treatment and prognosis
While it carries a poor outcome, prenatal sonographic diagnosis may influence the antenatal neonatal management of the surviving monozygous twin 1.
- 1. Patten RM, Mack LA, Nyberg DA et-al. Twin embolization syndrome: prenatal sonographic detection and significance. Radiology. 1989;173 (3): 685-9. Radiology (abstract) - Pubmed citation
- 2. Elchalal U, Tanos V, Bar-oz B et-al. Early second trimester twin embolization syndrome. J Ultrasound Med. 1997;16 (7): 509-12. J Ultrasound Med (citation) - Pubmed citation
- 3. Nyberg DA, McGahan JP, Pretorius DH. Diagnostic imaging of fetal anomalies. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (2003) ISBN:0781732115. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 4. Caballero P, Del campo L, Ocón E. Cystic encephalomalacia in twin embolization syndrome. Radiology. 1991;178 (3): 892-3. Radiology (citation) - Pubmed citation
- 5. Bhargava. Principles and Practice of Ultrasonography. Jaypee Brothers Publishers. (2002) ISBN:8171798772. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
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