Typical pulmonary carcinoid tumors
Typical pulmonary carcinoid tumors are considered the more common and more benign low grade form of peripheral pulmonary carcinoid tumors. There is little or no known association between typical carcinoid tumors and tobacco use or exposure to other carcinogens which contrasts to atypical carcinoid tumors which have been reported to have an association with tobacco use 2 .
- 1. Raz DJ, Nelson RA, Grannis FW, Kim JY. Natural history of typical pulmonary carcinoid tumors: a comparison of nonsurgical and surgical treatment. (2015) Chest. 147 (4): 1111-1117. doi:10.1378/chest.14-1960 - Pubmed
- 2. Herde RF, Kokeny KE, Reddy CB, Akerley WL, Hu N, Boltax JP, Hitchcock YJ. Primary Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor: A Long-term Single Institution Experience. (2018) American journal of clinical oncology. 41 (1): 24-29. doi:10.1097/COC.0000000000000221 - Pubmed