Citation, DOI & article data
Typically ulcerative colitis manifests in young adults (15-40 years of age) and is more prevalent in males but the onset of disease after age of 50 is also common 1,3,5.
Ulcerative colitis is less prevalent in smokers than in non-smokers.
A combination of environmental and genetic factors are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis, although the condition remains idiopathic.
Unlike Crohn disease which is characteristically a transmural disease, ulcerative colitis is usually limited to the mucosa and submucosa 5.
The diagnosis is often made with endoscopy, which also allows biopsy of any suspicious areas.
primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC)
- 70-80% of patients with PSC develop inflammatory bowel disease
- 87% of these develop ulcerative colitis
- 70-80% of patients with PSC develop inflammatory bowel disease
- moyamoya phenomenon
- ankylosing spondylitis
- colorectal carcinoma
- celiac disease: 3x increased risk 17
- thoracic manifestations of ulcerative colitis
- uveitis and iritis
- erythema nodosum and pyoderma gangrenosum
- thrombotic complications
- fatty liver
- seronegative spondyloarthropathy
- chronic active hepatitis 7
Severity scoring systems
Several severity scoring systems exist. These include:
One of the most commonly used scoring systems. It is a composite of subscores from four categories, namely stool frequency, rectal bleeding, findings of flexible proctosigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy and physician’s global assessment. Total score ranges from 0-12 8.
Endoscopic component ranges from 0-3
- 0: normal mucosa or inactive disease
- 1: mild disease with evidence of mild friability, reduced vascular pattern, and mucosal erythema
- 2: moderate disease with friability, erosions, complete loss of vascular pattern, and significant erythema
- 3: ulceration and spontaneous bleeding
Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index of Severity (UCEIS)
A newer endoscopic scoring system which includes assessment of vascular pattern, bleeding, and ulcers and excludes mucosal friability. In this system,
The vascular pattern is rated as 1-3
- 1: normal
- 2: patchy loss of vascular pattern
- 3: complete loss of vascular pattern
Bleeding is characterized from 1-4
- 1: none
- 2: mucosal bleeding
- 3: mild colonic luminal bleeding
- 4: moderate or severe luminal bleeding
Erosions and ulcers are characterized from 1-4
- 1: none
- 2: erosions
- 3: superficial ulceration
- 4: deep ulcers
Involvement of the rectum is almost always present (95%) 1, with the disease involving variable amounts of the most proximal colon, in continuity. The entire colon may be involved, in which case edema of the terminal ileum may also be present (so-called backwash ileitis).
In very severe cases, the colon becomes atonic, with marked dilatation, worsened by bacterial overgrowth. This leads to toxic megacolon, which although uncommon, has a poor prognosis 13.
Non-specific findings, but may show evidence of mural thickening (more common), with thumbprinting also seen in more severe cases.
Double-contrast barium enema allows for exquisite detail of the colonic mucosa and also allows the bowel proximal to strictures to be assessed. It is however contraindicated if acute severe colitis is present due to the risk of perforation.
Mucosal inflammation leads to a granular appearance on the surface of the bowel. As inflammation increases, the bowel wall and haustra thicken.
In chronic cases, the bowel becomes featureless with the loss of normal haustral markings, luminal narrowing, and bowel shortening (lead pipe sign).
Small islands of residual mucosa can grow into thin worm-like structures (so-called filiform polyps)
Colorectal carcinoma in the setting of ulcerative colitis is more frequently sessile and may appear to be a simple stricture.
CT will reflect the same changes that are seen with a barium enema, with the additional advantage of being able to directly visualize the colonic wall, the terminal ileum and identify extra-colonic complications, such as perforation or abscess formation. It is important to note however that CT is insensitive to early mucosal disease 2.
Inflammatory pseudopolyps may be seen if large enough, in well-distended bowel. In areas of mucosal denudation, abnormal thinning of the bowel may also be evident 2.
A cross-section of the inflamed and thickened bowel has a target appearance due to concentric rings of varying attenuation, also known as mural stratification 1,2.
In chronic cases, fat submucosal deposition is seen particularly in the rectum (fat halo sign). Also in this region, extramural deposition of fat leads to thickening of the perirectal fat and widening of the presacral space 1,2.
Strictures are also common and are not all malignant. These are predominantly due to marked muscularis mucosa hypertrophy, which is also in part responsible for the lead pipe sign.
Colorectal carcinoma is often sessile. Focal loss of mural stratification or excessive mural thickness (1.5 cm) should prompt endoscopic evaluation 2.
Some segments of bowel may show pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis in some cases 10
The current status of MRI in ulcerative colitis is that of a promising, non-invasive technique for imaging extent of more severe disease.
The most striking abnormalities in ulcerative colitis are wall thickening and increased enhancement.
The median wall thickness in ulcerative colitis ranges from 4.7 to 9.8 mm. In general, the more severe the inflammation, the thicker the colonic wall. A colonic wall thickness <3 mm is usually considered as normal, 3-4 mm as a "gray zone," and >4 mm as pathological.
Use of diffusion-weighted imaging in the assessment of ulcerative colitis has been encouraging. One study, which compared the MRI with endoscopy, found that a b value of 800 s/mm2 was most accurate (cf. 400, 600 or 1000 s/mm2), with a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 79%, at diagnosing active colitis 9.
Enhancement of the mucosa with an absent or decreased enhancement of the submucosa produces a low SI stripe - the so-called submucosal stripe.
Other features are the loss of haustral markings, backwash ileitis, mild enhancement, and no wall thickening, and there is increased SI of the pericolonic fat noted.
Treatment and prognosis
Total colectomy is curative of both the intestinal symptoms and the potential risk of colorectal carcinoma. Medical therapy is able to control colonic disease in some cases but does not remove the need for regular screening for malignancy.
Due to close surveillance patients with ulcerative colitis have a normal or even slightly improved survival compared to normal population 3. This is clearly not the case if the disease is not diagnosed or treatment not available.
- chronic disease is associated with a significantly elevated malignancy risk, of up to 0.5-1.0% per year after 10 years of the disease ref
- 10-15% of cases initially presenting as ulcerative colitis later progress to Crohn disease ref
- patients with ulcerative colitis may have a higher incidence of perianal disease than the general population 11
- lower gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage
- toxic megacolon
- increased risk of thromboembolism 14
- 1. Roggeveen MJ, Tismenetsky M, Shapiro R. Best cases from the AFIP: Ulcerative colitis. Radiographics. 26 (3): 947-51. doi:10.1148/rg.263055149 - Pubmed citation
- 2. Gore RM, Balthazar EJ, Ghahremani GG et-al. CT features of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1996;167 (1): 3-15. AJR Am J Roentgenol (citation) - Pubmed citation
- 3. Loftus EV, Silverstein MD, Sandborn WJ et-al. Ulcerative colitis in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1940-1993: incidence, prevalence, and survival. Gut. 2000;46 (3): 336-43. Gut (link) - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 4. Thoeni RF, Cello JP. CT imaging of colitis. Radiology. 2006;240 (3): 623-38. Radiology (full text) - doi:10.1148/radiol.2403050818 - Pubmed citation
- 5. Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N et-al. Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. Elsevier Health Sciences. (2009) ISBN:1437720153. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 6. Mark B. Pepys, Gideon M. Hirschfield. C-reactive protein: a critical update. (2003) The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 111 (12): 1805. doi:10.1172/JCI18921 - Pubmed
- 7. Wolfgang Dähnert. Radiology Review Manual. (2011) ISBN: 9781609139438
- 8. Paine ER. Colonoscopic evaluation in ulcerative colitis. (2014) Gastroenterology report. 2 (3): 161-8. doi:10.1093/gastro/gou028 - Pubmed
- 9. Yu LL, Yang HS, Zhang BT et-al. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging without bowel preparation for detection of ulcerative colitis. (2015) World journal of gastroenterology. 21 (33): 9785-92. doi:10.3748/wjg.v21.i33.9785 - Pubmed
- 10. Matsumoto A, Isomoto H, Shikuwa S et-al. Pneumatosis intestinalis in ulcerative colitis. (2009) Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research. 15 (9): CS139-42. Pubmed
- 11. Choi YS, Kim DS, Lee DH et-al. Clinical Characteristics and Incidence of Perianal Diseases in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis. (2018) Annals of coloproctology. 34 (3): 138-143. doi:10.3393/ac.2017.06.08 - Pubmed
- 12. Khoshpouri P, Habibabadi RR, Hazhirkarzar B et-al. Imaging Features of Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis: From Diagnosis to Liver Transplant Follow-up. (2019) Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. 39 (7): 1938-1964. doi:10.1148/rg.2019180213 - Pubmed
- 13. Gajendran M, Loganathan P, Jimenez G et-al. A comprehensive review and update on ulcerative colitis. (2019) Disease-a-month : DM. 65 (12): 100851. doi:10.1016/j.disamonth.2019.02.004 - Pubmed
- 14. Goh, Ian Y et al. “Thromboembolism in active ulcerative colitis.” BMJ case reports vol. 2017 bcr2016218608. 20 Jun. 2017, doi:10.1136/bcr-2016-218608 doi:10.1136/bcr-2016-218608
- 15. Navaneethan U. Hepatobiliary manifestations of ulcerative colitis: an example of gut-liver crosstalk. (2014) Gastroenterology report. 2 (3): 193-200. doi:10.1093/gastro/gou036 - Pubmed
- 16. Du L & Ha C. Epidemiology and Pathogenesis of Ulcerative Colitis. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2020;49(4):643-54. doi:10.1016/j.gtc.2020.07.005 - Pubmed
- 17. Pinto-Sanchez M, Seiler C, Santesso N et al. Association Between Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Celiac Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Gastroenterology. 2020;159(3):884-903.e31. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2020.05.016 - Pubmed