Ultrasound guided breast biopsy
Ultrasound guided percutaneous breast biopsy is a widely used technique for an accurate histopathological assessment of suspected breast pathology. It is a fast, safe and economical procedure.
Ultrasound guidance is limited to lesions visible on ultrasound study, such as:
A history of aspirin or anticoagulant use is not an absolute contraindication to biopsy. This is a superficial procedure that, in case of profuse bleeding, could be easily compressed. In these cases, discussion with referring physician should be done to weigh the risk of hematoma versus the risk of discontinuing anticoagulation 1.
Laboratory tests are usually not performed.
Patient may be positioned in the dorsal decubitus as for a conventional breast ultrasound exam or in laterals decubitus as it promotes a safer access to the lesion. Only the breast to be biopsied should be uncovered.
This may vary according to institutional protocols and usually includes:
- 14G or 16G core biopsy needle, single or co-axial, with 10 mm or 20 mm cutting lengths
- trigger device
- 1% lidocaine without epinephrine
- chlorhexidine, surgical scalpel blade (usually n.11), needle and syringe for anesthetic, dressing, and sterile gloves
- Study the target lesion and its best biopsy approach.
- Skin antisepsis.
- Local block with 1% lidocaine using US guidance while injecting it.
- A small incision is made with a scalpel blade (enough to overcome resistance and allow the entry of the core-needle biopsy).
- US-guided introduction of the core-needle biopsy and subsequent removal of the fragments.
- Local compression may be necessary to stop any bleeding.
- Skin cleansing and dressing.
Dressing over the incision point. General instructions for the patient.
- bleeding (easily compressed)
- local haematoma
- non diagnostic sample
- post biopsy obscuration of target lesion, particularly if was very small or had a cystic component which ruptured; consider placement or marker/clip in such cases
In cases with equivocal pathologic findings or with a discordant radiologic and histologic findings, a new biopsy or suggestion for a surgical excision should be contemplated 2.
- 1. Harvey JA, Moran RE. US-guided core needle biopsy of the breast: technique and pitfalls. Radiographics. 1998;18 (4): 867-77. doi:10.1148/radiographics.18.4.9672971 - Pubmed citation
- 2. Youk JH, Kim EK, Kim MJ et-al. Missed breast cancers at US-guided core needle biopsy: how to reduce them. Radiographics. 2007;27 (1): 79-94. doi:10.1148/rg.271065029 - Pubmed citation