Umbilical cord thrombosis is a potentially fatal complication and can mean either a thrombosis of the umbilical vein or either or both the umbilical arteries. Umbilical vein thrombosis occurs more frequently than thrombosis of one or both umbilical arteries (umbilical arterial thrombosis)
The estimated incidence is approximately 1 in 1300 deliveries, 1 in 1000 perinatal autopsies, and 1 in 250 high-risk gestations. There is a slight male predominance 1.
Greyscale imaging may show focal areas or the entire cord being increased in echogenicity. Color Doppler will confirm an absence of flow.
A poorer fetal outcome is more likely with arterial thrombosis 1. The strong association between cord thrombosis and perinatal morbidity and mortality is likely related to additional umbilical cord abnormalities, obstetrical complications, or systemic fetal conditions that are the likely cause of both the thrombosis and the poor fetal outcome.
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