Ureteral duplication

Last revised by Naim Qaqish on 15 Jan 2021

Ureteral duplication is the most common congenital abnormality associated with the urinary tract, and occurs in ~1% of the population.

Gross anatomy

Duplication can occur unilaterally or bilaterally, and may be partial or complete:

  • partially duplicated ureters fuse into a single ureter proximal to the urinary bladder (also known as bifid ureter)
  • in complete duplication, the duplicated ureters may form a ureterocele, ectopic ureter, or orthotopic ureter

Related pathology

Complete duplications are associated with an increased risk for urinary tract infection, obstruction, and vesicoureteral reflux


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Cases and figures

  • Case 1: complete
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  • Case 2: proximal partial-bifid ureter
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  • Case 2: distal partial-bifid ureter
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