Velocity encoding

Last revised by Dr Joachim Feger on 11 Dec 2021

Velocity encoding or Venc is referred to as an operator-controlled parameter for the determination of the maximum velocity within a velocity encoded phase contrast imaging study.


Velocity-encoding (Venc) gradients are used to generate a phase shift in magnetic resonance phase contrast imaging proportional to the velocity of moving protons. This phenomenon can be used to depict and measure the velocity of spins and thus flow 1.

Venc has to be defined by the user before image acquisition and adapted to the anticipated peak velocities to obtain accurate flow measurements 2.   In case Venc is chosen too low aliasing occurs, if it is chosen too high, flow measurements suffer from low accuracy and/or a jet might not be seen. A velocity scout may help in an improved predefinition 2,3.

Typical Venc values for different flow measurements are listed below:

  • aqueduct:                         8-12 cm/s

In case aliasing or mosaic patterns occur Venc should be adjusted until the latter disappears. This can be accomplished for 25-50 cm/s concerning the aorta or main pulmonary artery.

See also

ADVERTISEMENT: Supporters see fewer/no ads

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.