Venous drainage of the thoracic wall

Dr Owen Kang et al.

The venous drainage of the thoracic wall drains deoxygenated venous blood from the peripheries of the thoracic cage back into systemic circulation.

Gross anatomy

Anterior thoracic wall
Anterior intercostal veins

The anterior intercostal veins originate from the intercostal space just inferior to anterior aspects of their respective ribs and drain into the internal thoracic and musculophrenic veins.

Posterior thoracic wall
Posterior intercostal veins

The posterior intercostal veins originate from the intercostal space just inferior to posterior aspects of their respective ribs. In the right side, the 4th to 11th posterior intercostal veins and subcostal vein drain into the azygos vein. The 4th to 7th (sometimes 8th) left-sided posterior intercostal veins drain into the accessory hemiazygos vein. The 8th to 11th left-sided posterior intercostal and subcostal veins drain into the hemiazygos vein.

Supreme intercostal vein

The supreme intercostal vein drain the 1st intercostal space posteriorly opening into the vertebral or brachiocephalic veins.

Superior intercostal vein

The posterior 2nd and 3rd intercostal spaces are drained by their respective posterior intercostal veins into a single vessel, the superior intercostal vein, into the azygos and brachiocephalic veins in the right and left sides respectively.

Variant anatomy

  • the superior intercostal veins may additionally drain the 4th intercostal space
  • the accessory hemiazygos vein may drain the left 8th intercostal space posteriorly
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Article information

rID: 49548
Systems: Chest, Vascular
Section: Anatomy
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Venous drainage of the chest wall

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