Ventral trochlear prominence
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Ventral trochlear prominence (VTP) describes and measures the bony surplus in the anterior femoral surface at the most superior or proximal aspect of the trochlea.
Ventral trochlear prominence is used for the assessment of trochlear dysplasia, a risk factor for patellofemoral instability 1-4 in sagittal magnetic resonance images. It can be seen as an analog to Henri Dejour’s trochlear bump 1-3.
A review about the quality assessment of measurements for trochlear dysplasia identified the ventral trochlear prominence as one of the more useful measurements 4.
The distance between an extension line of the anterior, supratrochlear femoral cortical surface and the most anterior cartilaginous surface of the trochlear groove is measured. The measurement is conducted on a sagittal plane through the trochlear groove 1.
A cut-off value of ≥8 mm indicates trochlear dysplasia, with a reported sensitivity and specificity of 75% and 83% respectively 1.
History and etymology
Ventral trochlear prominence as an assessment tool for trochlear dysplasia in MRI was introduced by the Swiss radiologist Christian WA Pfirrmann 1 as an analog of Henri Dejours trochlear bump 2.
- 1. Pfirrmann C, Zanetti M, Romero J, Hodler J. Femoral Trochlear Dysplasia: MR Findings. Radiology. 2000;216(3):858-64. doi:10.1148/radiology.216.3.r00se38858 - Pubmed
- 2. Dejour H, Walch G, Nove-Josserand L, Guier C. Factors of Patellar Instability: An Anatomic Radiographic Study. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 1994;2(1):19-26. doi:10.1007/BF01552649 - Pubmed
- 3. Ngai S, Smitaman E, Resnick D. Trochlear Dysplasia. Radsource – June 2018. MRI Web Clinic
- 4. Paiva M, Blønd L, Hölmich P et al. Quality Assessment of Radiological Measurements of Trochlear Dysplasia; a Literature Review. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2017;26(3):746-55. doi:10.1007/s00167-017-4520-z - Pubmed