Ventricular septal defect

Ventricular septal defects (VSD) represent defects in the interventricular septum that allow a haemodynamic communication between the right and left ventricles. It typically results in a left-to-right shunt.

They represent one of the most common congenital cardiac anomalies and may be associated with up to 40% of such anomalies 1.  They are considered the most common congenital cardiac abnormality diagnosed in children and the second most common diagnosed in adults 9. The estimated incidence is at ~1 in 400 births 6.

Classification according to location
  • membranous/perimembranous (most common: 80-90%)
  • inlet/inflow
  • outlet/subarterial
  • muscular/trabecular
Associations

A VSD can occur on its own but frequently tends to occur with other cardiovascular associations:

Plain radiograph

The chest radiograph can be normal with a small VSD. Larger VSDs may show cardiomegaly (particularly left atrial enlargement although the right and left ventricle can also be enlarged). A large VSD may also show features of pulmonary arterial hypertensionpulmonary oedema, pleural effusion and increased pulmonary vascular markings.

Ultrasound: echocardiography

Allows direct visualisation of the septal defect which can be easily seen in the four chamber view. A perimembranous VSD can be seen as a septal dropout in the area adjacent to the tricuspid septal leaflet and below the right border of the aortic annulus. Small isolated VSDs can be difficult to detect prenatally.

CT

CTA with ECG-gating allows direct visualisation of the defect. Large VSDs may be seen on non-gated studies.

MRI

May also show added functional information (e.g. quantification/shunt severity) in addition to anatomy. Some muscular defects can give a "Swiss cheese" appearance owing to their complexity.

The prognosis is good for small VSDs which show a high spontaneous intrauterine or postnatal closure rate. VSDs usually do not cause any haemodynamic compromise in utero due to the right and left ventricular pressures being very similar during that period.

Complications
Congenital heart disease

There is more than one way to present the variety of congenital heart diseases. Whichever way they are categorised, it is helpful to have a working understanding of normal and fetal circulation, as well as an understanding of the segmental approach to imaging in congenital heart disease.

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Article information

rID: 7352
Section: Pathology
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Ventricular septal defect (VSD)
  • VSD
  • Ventricular septal defects
  • VSD's

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Cases and figures

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    Figure 1: illustration
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    Case 1
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    VSD
    Case 2: echo
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    VSD
    Case 3: small
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    Case A: large VSD...
    Case 4: antenatal - large
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    Case B: small VSD...
    Case 5: antenatal - small
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    Case 6: ultrasound cine loop - apical VSD
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    Case 7
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