Its epidemiology is varied and depends on the underlying cause.
Meningitis is the most common underlying condition responsible for the ventriculitis. It is directly related to lower host immunity and higher virulence of the causative organism. The occurrence of direct haematogenous spread to the choroid plexus has also been suggested. In long-standing cases (>2 months) ventricular septations develop which result in compartmentalization and multiloculated hydrocephalus and makes prognosis worse.
Neonatal cranial ultrasound can show increased periventricular echogenicity and irregularity of the ventricular surface. Choroid plexus irregularity (thought to owe to haematogenous spread via the choroid plexus) can also be seen. Additionally, echogenic intraventricular debris may be present. When present, intraventricular septations may be well delineated on ultrasound 3,4.
Non-contrast CT of the brain usually demonstrates only non-specific features, most frequently hyperdense layering material may be seen dependently, particularly in the occipital horns of the lateral ventricles 1.
Hydrocephalus and periventricular low density (which probably represents reactive edema rather than transependymal edema related to hydrocephalus 1) is also frequently present, as of course may the features of the underlying abnormality (e.g. meningitis, shunt/EVD, trauma)
Following administration of contrast, thin regular enhancement of the ependymal lining of the ventricles may be seen.
MRI demonstrates the same features as CT, with layering debris in the occipital horns frequently seen. There often an intense restricted diffusion of these intraventricular debris, as seen in the center of a brain abscess.
MRI is also more sensitive to the often subtle periventricular abnormal signal (high T2) and thin contrast enhancement.
Additionally, the periventricular region may demonstrate restricted diffusion on DWI / ADC.
The main differential diagnosis is that of ependymal lining enhancement, which includes ependymal spreading of glioblastoma or primary CNS lymphoma. In these cases, the enhancement is, usually, bumpy/nodular. Extracranial neoplasm metastases and germinoma may also be responsible for similar findings.
- 1. Fukui MB, Williams RL, Mudigonda S. CT and MR imaging features of pyogenic ventriculitis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2001;22 (8): 1510-6. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 2. Fujikawa A, Tsuchiya K, Honya K et-al. Comparison of MRI sequences to detect ventriculitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006;187 (4): 1048-53. doi:10.2214/AJR.04.1923 - Pubmed citation
- 3. J D Reeder, R C Sanders. Ventriculitis in the neonate: recognition by sonography. (1983) American Journal of Neuroradiology. 4 (1): 37. Pubmed
- 4. Gupta N, Grover H, Bansal I, Hooda K, Sapire JM, Anand R, Kumar Y. Neonatal cranial sonography: ultrasound findings in neonatal meningitis-a pictorial review. (2017) Quantitative imaging in medicine and surgery. 7 (1): 123-131. doi:10.21037/qims.2017.02.01 - Pubmed
Related Radiopaedia articles
Infections of the central nervous system
- classification by etiology
- eastern equine encephalitis
- enterovirus rhomboencephalitis
- flavivirus encephalitis
herpes virus family
- herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis
- herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) encephalitis
- varicella zoster virus (VZV) encephalitis
- Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encephalitis
- cytomegalovirus (CMV) encephalitis
- human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) encephalitis
- HIV CNS manifestations
- HTLV-1-associated myelopathy
- JC virus
- measles encephalitis
- Nipah virus (NiV) encephalitis
- rabies encephalitis
- CNS listeriosis (Listeria monocytogenes)
- CNS nocardiosis (Nocardia spp)
- CNS tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
- Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi)
- neurosyphilis (Treponema pallidum)
- Rocky Mountain spotted fever (Rickettsia rickettsii)
- cerebral amoebiasis
- cerebral malaria (Plasmodium falciparum)
- cerebral sparganosis (Spirometra mansonoides)
- neurocysticercosis (Taenia solium)
- neurohydatidosis (Echinococcus spp)
- neurotoxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
- others or those with possible infectious etiologies
- classification by location
- meninges and ventricular system
- brain parenchyma, cerebral vasculature, brainstem, and spinal cord
- classification by etiology