Citation, DOI & article data
Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts are devices used to shunt cerebrospinal fluid in the treatment of hydrocephalus.
As the name suggests, a catheter is placed with its tip in the ventricle. The external portion of the catheter is connected to a valve that regulates the flow of CSF based on a preset pressure. The distal catheter is tunneled under the skin and into the peritoneal cavity.
Several other similar devices can be involved in the shunting of fluid from one cavity under pressure to another cavity of lower pressure:
- ventriculoatrial shunt (CSF shunted into the vascular system)
- lumboperitoneal shunt (CSF shunted from the spine)
- cystoperitoneal shunt (cyst contents shunted to peritoneal space)
- programmable shunt with variable pressing settings
A shunt series is performed when there is concern about the normal functioning of a VP shunt.
Recognized complications include 1,2:
- shunt malfunction
- disconnections/breaks (most common in the neck)
- shunt overdrainage and slit ventricle syndrome
- intracranial peri-shunt fluid collection with edema 3
- trapped ventricle: after lateral ventricular shunting
- distal complications
- 1. Goeser CD, McLeary MS, Young LW. Diagnostic imaging of ventriculoperitoneal shunt malfunctions and complications. Radiographics. 1998;18 (3): 635-51. Radiographics (abstract) - Pubmed citation
- 2. Wallace AN, McConathy J, Menias CO et-al. Imaging evaluation of CSF shunts. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2014;202 (1): 38-53. doi:10.2214/AJR.12.10270 - Pubmed citation
- 3. H.A. Kale, A. Muthukrishnan, S.V. Hegde, V. Agarwal. Intracranial Perishunt Catheter Fluid Collections with Edema, a Sign of Shunt Malfunction: Correlation of CT/MRI and Nuclear Medicine Findings. (2017) American Journal of Neuroradiology. 38 (9): 1754. doi:10.3174/ajnr.A5291 - Pubmed
- 4. Starreveld Y, Poenaru D, Ellis P. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt knot: a rare cause of bowel obstruction and ischemia. (1998) Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie. 41 (3): 239-40. Pubmed