Vidian artery

Last revised by Yuranga Weerakkody on 5 Jan 2023

The Vidian artery, also known as the artery of the pterygoid canal, is named after the canal in which it traverses, the Vidian canal 1.

  • location: Vidian canal

  • origin: maxillary artery

  • branches and supply: eustachian tube, tympanic cavity, superior pharynx

The Vidian artery traverses through the Vidian canal to form anastomoses in the pterygopalatine fossa, oropharynx and surrounding the eustachian tube 1.

The Vidian artery typically originates as a branch of the distal maxillary artery. However, the Vidian artery may originate as a branch of the petrous segment of the internal carotid artery 1.

The Vidian artery supplies a segment of the eustachian tube, the tympanic cavity and the superior portion of the pharynx 1.

The Vidian artery forms several anastomoses with the:

  • ethmoidal, pharyngeal, and sphenopalatine arteries in the pterygopalatine fossa 1

  • accessory meningeal, ascending palatine, ascending pharyngeal, and descending palatine arteries in the oropharynx and adjacent to the eustachian tube 1

  • artery of the foramen rotandum and thus branches of the cavernous portion of the internal carotid artery 1

The vidian artery and its anastomoses form one of the internal carotid artery to the external carotid artery anastomoses.

The Vidian artery is named after the Italian surgeon and anatomist, Guido Guidi (Latin: Vidus Vidius) (1509-1569) 2.

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