Volar plate avulsion injury

Volar plate avulsion injuries are a type of avulsion injury. The volar plate of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint is vulnerable hyperextension injury as either an ligamentous or intra-articular fracture.

The volar plate forms the floor of PIP joint separating the joint space from the flexor tendon sheath. The volar plate has a ligamentous origin on the proximal phalanx with a capsular insertion onto the middle phalanx. 

Hyperextension injury involving the PIP of finger can avulse the volar plate which is commonly associated with a volar avulsion fracture at the base of the middle phalanx.

When the volar avulsion fracture involves a significant portion of the articular surface, instability and dorsal dislocation of middle phalanx can occur. This is because greater portion of the stabilising collateral ligaments are attached to the avulsed fragment.  

Classification

Knowledge of the orthopaedic Eaton classification is practical when reporting volar plate injury as it influence decision on management 3. Treatment is dependent on the following factors:  

  • size of the fragment (<40% of articular segment)
  • degree of impaction
  • direction of the dislocation
Eaton types
  • Eaton type I: hyperextension mechanism of injury with an avulsion of the volar plate and a longitudinal tear of the collateral ligaments; the opposing joint surface remain congruent
  • Eaton type II: dorsal dislocation of the PIP joint with avulsion of the volar plate; there is complete tear of the collateral ligament
  • Eaton type III
    • Eaton type IIIa
      • fracture dislocation with an avulsed small fragment <40% of articular surface
      • dorsal aspect of the collateral ligament remains attached to the middle phalanx
    • Eaton type IIIb
      • fracture dislocation with fracture or impaction of the articular surface of more than 40%

Another classification which is considered useful in management is Keifhaber-Stern classification

Small fragment of bone is avulsed from volar base of middle phalanx. If there is significant involvement of the articular surface involved this maybe associated with dorsal dislocation of the middle phalanx.  

Overall small fragment involving <40% of articular segment and/or reducible fracture with <30 degrees of flexion is usually managed conservatively with finger splinting. Large fragment or >30 degrees of flexion to reduce the fragment and malalignment post closed reduction are indicators for operative treatment.


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Article Information

rID: 20186
Section: Gamuts
Tags: refs, cases
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Volar plate avulsion injuries
  • Volar plate avulsion fracture
  • Volar plate avulsion fractures

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