Citation, DOI, disclosures and article data
At the time the article was created Yuranga Weerakkody had no recorded disclosures.View Yuranga Weerakkody's current disclosures
At the time the article was last revised Ayla Al Kabbani had no recorded disclosures.View Ayla Al Kabbani's current disclosures
Wharton jelly refers to the gelatinous substance within the umbilical cord.
Wharton jelly is derived from extra-embryonic mesoderm and is largely made up of mucopolysaccharides (hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulphate) while containing smaller amounts of fibroblasts and macrophages. It acts as a support structure and protects the vessels of the umbilical cord against compression and constriction.
- umbilical cord pseudocysts: from mucoid or cystic degeneration 3
- thickened umbilical cord: from excess Wharton jelly in gestational diabetes 4
- lean umbilical cord: reduced Wharton jelly 7
History and etymology
Named after the English physician Thomas Wharton (1614-1673) 1.
- 1. Warton T (1656). Adenographia: sive glandularum totius corporis descriptio. London: Wharton. pp. pg 243–44
- 2. Kurita M, Hasegawa J, Mikoshiba T et-al. Ultrasound evaluation of the amount of Wharton's jelly and the umbilical coiling index. Fetal. Diagn. Ther. 2009;26 (2): 85-9. doi:10.1159/000238118 - Pubmed citation
- 3. Kiran H, Kiran G, Kanber Y. Pseudocyst of the umbilical cord with mucoid degeneration of Wharton's jelly. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 2003;111 (1): 91-3. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. (link) - Pubmed citation
- 4. Weissman A, Jakobi P. Sonographic measurements of the umbilical cord in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes. J Ultrasound Med. 1997;16 (10): 691-4. J Ultrasound Med (abstract) - Pubmed citation
- 5. Ramanathan K, Epstein S, Yaghoobian J. Localized deposition of Wharton's jelly: sonographic findings. J Ultrasound Med. 1986;5 (6): 339-40. J Ultrasound Med (citation) - Pubmed citation
- 6. Raio L, Ghezzi F, Di naro E et-al. Prenatal assessment of Wharton's jelly in umbilical cords with single artery. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 1999;14 (1): 42-6. doi:10.1046/j.1469-0705.1999.14010042.x - Pubmed citation
- 7. Moshiri M, Zaidi SF, Robinson TJ et-al. Comprehensive imaging review of abnormalities of the umbilical cord. Radiographics. 2014;34 (1): 179-96. doi:10.1148/rg.341125127 - Pubmed citation