White matter changes in HIV

Last revised by Dr Daniel J Bell on 14 Oct 2021

White matter changes in HIV have overlapping appearances and varied in etiology. These can be divided into:

Primary effects of HIV
Opportunistic infection
Neoplasms
Vascular disease
  • HIV associated cerebral vasculopathy 2
    • appears similar to cerebral vasculitis, but without the histopathological changes
    • leucoclastic vasculitis of the vasa vasorum identified
    • may affect large, medium and small vessels
    • may respond to HAART
Metabolic and nutritional disorders

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Cases and figures

  • Case 1: primary CNS Lymphoma
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  • Case 2: HSV encephalitis
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  • Case 3: CNS cryptococcus infection
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  • Case 4: HIV encephalitis
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  • Case 5: PML
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