Missed our latest free live-stream? Catch up now on our Procedure Tips (Chris Nicholas) and Right Lower Quadrant Pain (Matt Morgan)

Xiphoid shape variations

Dr Yair Glick and Dr Dalia Ibrahim et al.

There is considerable anatomic variation in the shape of the xiphoid of the sternum:

  • xiphoid ending is classified as single, double, or triple.
  • xiphoid size varies (e.g. elongated process)
  • xiphoid morphology (e.g. ventral or dorsal deviation, hook-like, reverse S-shape).

Clinical presentation

Elongated and ventrally-deviated xiphoid process might mimic an epigastric mass and cause pain 3,4.

Article information

rID: 58102
Section: Anatomy
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Xiphisternum variation

ADVERTISEMENT: Supporters see fewer/no ads

Cases and figures

  • Case 1: hook like
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Case 2: ventrally deviated
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Case 3: double-ended
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Updating… Please wait.

     Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

     Thank you for updating your details.