Xiphoid shape variations

Last revised by Dr Jeremy Jones on 02 Aug 2021

There is considerable anatomic variation in the shape of the xiphoid of the sternum:

  • xiphoid ending is classified as single, double, or triple.
  • xiphoid size varies (e.g. elongated process)
  • xiphoid morphology (e.g. ventral or dorsal deviation, hook-like, reverse S-shape).

Clinical presentation

Elongated and ventrally-deviated xiphoid process might mimic an epigastric mass and cause pain 3,4.

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Cases and figures

  • Case 1: hook like
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  • Case 2: ventrally deviated
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  • Case 3: double-ended
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  • Case 4: bifid curved xiphoid process
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