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Yttrium-90 (90Y) is a radioisotope derived from the decay of 90Sr.
Yttrium-90 decays due to the emission of β- particles, with a half-life of 2.67 days 5. It has no gamma energy emission, but may be imaged through the use of bremsstrahlung interactions with planar or SPECT imaging. A small amount of internal pair production also enables the use of PET imaging. These unique features enable both diagnostic imaging and therapy, making it a popular theranostic agent.
The radioimmunotherapy 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan is a murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed at human CD20. Radioactive yttrium is bound to the mAb through the tiuxetan, a bifunctional chelator. It is approved for the treatment of non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma.
Radiosynoviorthesis (RSO) is the intra-articular injection of beta-particle emitting radiocolloids. Colloidal yttrium-90 citrate is the radiopharmaceutical used in RSO for the treatment of joint inflammation 4.
Transarterial radioembolization utilizes Yttrium-90 microspheres in the treatment of unresectable hepatic malignancy, which includes hepatocellular cancer, neuroendocrine and colorectal liver metastases.
Yttrium belongs to the group of transition metals; it has atomic number (Z) 39 and atomic weight 88.90585
Its electronic configuration is: [Kr] 4d1 5s2
The maximum energy of the emitted particles is 2.28 MeV with an average path in the human tissuses of approximately 5.8 mm. It decays to the non-radioactive isotope 90Zr.
History and etymology
Yttrium was discovered in 1794 by Johan Gadolin, a Finnish chemist, in a sample of mineral originating from Ytterby (Sweden).