Revision 9 for 'Zika virus infection'

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Zika virus infection

Zika virus infection is a zoonosis which is associated with congenital birth defects, most famously microcephaly.

Epidemiology

Zika was once isolated to Africa and Asia, however, it spread to the Americas in the last decade 1. There were thousands of cases confirmed in the Americas in 2018 2.

Clinical presentation

In up to 80% adult cases Zika disease is asymptomatic. When symptoms are present in adults, The clinical presentation of Zika in most adults is often mild and can include symptoms almost identical to dengue, including fever, malaise, joint pain and rash. When transmitted to the fetus, the disease is associated with congenital birth defects including microcephaly.

Pathology

Zika is a single RNA stranded Flavivirus usually transmitted by a mosquito vector, for example Aedes aegypti.  Although both vertical and sexual virus transmission are seen 3.

 

Z Diagnosis of Zika virus infection is complicated by the fact that it is asymptomatic in up to 80% of infections (14). The common symptoms tend to be mild and nonspecific, including headache, fever, and rash. Other symptoms include conjunctivitis, and, in rare instances, Guillain-Barré syndrome

Radiographic features

Radiographic features of Zika have been reported on ultrasound, CT and MRI. Congenital Zika has been shown to cause various brain abnormalities affecting both grey and white matter and ventricular size 4,5.

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