Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

16,272 results found
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Titanium elastic nail system

Titanium elastic nail system (TENS) is a form of intramedullary nailing typically used in the pediatric population because of the presence of a thick periosteum and the increased potential for bone remodeling in children. They are not routinely used in adults due to a lack of resistance to rota...
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Tertiary esophageal contractions

Tertiary esophageal contractions are a type of contractions of the esophagus often described as as the irregular contraction or indentations of the distal esophageal wall. Isolated tertiary esophageal waves of the non-repetitive type are thought to occur in normal subjects. Swallowing induced re...
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Stress shielding of the proximal humerus

Stress shielding after total shoulder arthroplasty is a bone resorption of the humerus around the proximal prosthesis stem. According to Wolff's Law, bone remodels in response to stress. After a total shoulder arthroplasty or shoulder hemiarthroplasty, intact bone previously responsible for be...
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Rocking-horse phenomenon

Rocking-horse phenomenon occurs in total shoulder arthroplasty when there is an abnormal glenoid version angle positioning that causes glenoid component failure. The glenoid component is stable when the load applied by the humeral head is centered, whereas anterior or posterior translation of ...
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iNPH Radscale

The iNPH Radscale is a reproducible semiquantified grading scale for the imaging findings of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Scale The iNPH Radscale uses the following imaging findings on both CT and MRI 1,4: Evans index ≤0.25: 0 points 0.26-0.3: 1 point >0.3: 2 points narrow parieta...
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Ganglion

A ganglion (plural: ganglia) is a group of neuronal cell bodies and processes located in the peripheral nervous system 1. Ganglia can be categorized into two groups - sensory ganglia and autonomic ganglia. Sensory ganglia primarily contain the cell bodies of neurons as well as their central an...
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Parotid liposubstitution

Parotid liposubstitution is a fatty degeneration of the parotid gland, sometimes increasing in volume. Associations Parotid liposubstitution is physiological with age but which may be associated with local or systemic conditions that include: hypertriglyceridemia may be associated with fat in...
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Pyrocarbon

Pyrocarbon or pyrolytic carbon is a synthetic material that, due to its tribological properties and biocompatibility, particularly with blood, was initially used in the medical field for mechanical heart valves. To make pyrocarbon-coated orthopedic implants, a graphite substrate is coated with ...
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Persistent sciatic vein

Persistent sciatic vein is one of two known embryonic veins in the lower limb which may persist, the other being the lateral marginal vein. Although both are associated with Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome 1-3, only the lateral marginal vein is also referred to as the Klippel-Trenaunay vein. The sci...
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Otalgia

Otalgia refers to the clinical symptoms of ear pain. It is broadly divided in two categories which are primary otalgia (~ 50% 3) - ear pain originating from causes within or near to the ear itself. secondary otalgia / referred otalgia (~50% 3)- ear pain due to causes remote from the ear. Path...
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Disseminated histoplasmosis

Disseminated histoplasmosis, also known as progressive disseminated histoplasmosis, is a severe form of histoplasmosis infection typically seen in immunosuppressed patients, especially in the setting of HIV infection. It results from hematogenous dissemination of the infection, involving multipl...
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Posterior meniscofemoral ligament (of Wrisberg)

The posterior meniscofemoral ligament or ligament of Wrisberg is one of the two variably present bands of the meniscofemoral ligament. Gross anatomy The posterior meniscofemoral ligament has insertions proximally at the lateral intercondylar aspect of the medial femoral condyle and distally a...
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Central intermediate and high-grade chondrosarcoma

Central chondrosarcomas grade 2 and 3 (CS2/CS3) are malignant intermediate- and high-grade cartilagineous or chondroid matrix-generating neoplasms that arise intramedullary 1-3. Epidemiology The incidence of central intermediate and high-grade chondrosarcomas has also risen compared to the 199...
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Glenoiditis

Glenoiditis or glenoid wear is the progressive erosion/wear of the native glenoid and is the most common complication of shoulder hemiarthroplasty. It may be caused by oversized humeral heads and insufficient joint release. Epidemiology Glenoiditis after shoulder hemiarthroplasty occurs in one...
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Root dilaceration

Root dilaceration is a dental deformity presenting as an acute angulation, deviation or curvature of the crown-root axis. Etiology Possible causes include: trauma during root development adjacent dentigerous cyst or tumor can lead to an abnormal angle in a developing tooth hereditary factor...
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Lumbar nerve root anomaly classification

There are a number of systems for lumbar nerve root anomaly classification with the Neidre and MacNab classification the most commonly cited; other systems include the Postacchini classification, and the Kadish and Simmons classification 2. Classification Neidre and MacNab classification modif...
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Lippes loop contraceptive device

Lippes loops are a type of an intrauterine device (IUD). It is a flexible polyethylene plastic trapezoidal loop meant for long-term use. Radiographic features Plain radiograph Radiopaque serpiginous material visualized within the mid-pelvis in an anterior posterior pelvic x-ray is the hallmar...
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Cestan-Chenais syndrome

Cestan-Chenais syndrome is a rare brainstem stroke syndrome with features between that of the hemimedullary syndrome (Reinhold syndrome) and the lateral medullary syndrome (Wallenberg syndrome), but distinct to that of Babinski-Nageotte syndrome 1,2.  Clinical presentation Cestan-Chenais syndr...
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Esophageal MRI

Esophageal MRI, or gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ) MRI, is a targeted mediastinal imaging protocol performed to stage and aid treatment decisions in esophageal and GEJ carcinoma. It is not yet included in major treatment guidelines, but recent literature have pointed promising accuracy compared...
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Diaphragmatic slips

Diaphragmatic slips are the muscular bundles that attach the central tendon of the diaphragm to the inside of the bones and cartilage of the lower 6-7 ribs, xiphoid process, lumbar vertebrae 1. They can mimic or help identify pathology when seen on imaging modalities. Mimics Diaphragmatic slip...
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Cathepsin A-related arteriopathy with strokes and leukoencephalopathy (CARASAL)

Cathepsin A-related arteriopathy with strokes and leukoencephalopathy (CARASAL) is a very rare monogenic autosomal dominant cerebral small-vessel disease. Epidemiology CARASAL is considered extremely rare, with less than thirty cases reported in the literature 1-5. The condition tends to clini...
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Median arcuate ligament

The median arcuate ligament is a fibrous arch connecting the left and right diaphragmatic crura at the aortic hiatus 1,2. A low-lying median arcuate ligament can compress the celiac axis to cause celiac artery compression syndrome which is also known as median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) 2.
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Amniotic fluid sludge (ultrasound)

Amniotic fluid sludge is a finding in obstetric transvaginal ultrasound scanning. Defined as free-floating hyperechogenic material in close proximity to the cervical internal os within the amniotic cavity of women with intact fetal membranes 1. It images as a dense, homogenous mass 2. Pathology...
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Central atypical cartilaginous tumor/low-grade chondrosarcoma

Central atypical cartilaginous tumors/chondrosarcomas grade 1 (ACT/CS1) or low-grade central chondrosarcomas are locally aggressive chondral neoplasms that arise centrally within bone from the medullar cavity. Terminology The terminology depends mainly on localization. Low-grade tumors arising...
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Stasis filling

Stasis filling describes persistent visualization of intravenous contrast within the proximal cerebral arteries but not within the cortical branches or venous outflow in suspected brain death patients, mimicking true cerebral blood flow (CBF). Pathology Etiology During brain death, raised int...
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Pseudosacculation

Pseudosacculations (also known as pseudodiverticulae) are outpouchings of normal bowel wall along the antimesenteric border. Inflammation and fibrosis along the mesenteric border of the bowel loop causes asymmetric shortening of the mesenteric wall, and subsequent pseudosacculations of the norma...
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Cholecystocutaneous fistula

Cholecystocutaneous fistulas are abnormal fistulous connection between the gallbladder and the skin. It is a rare form of gastrointestinal fistulation and may result from a complication of cholecystitis, gallbladder carcinoma, or percutaneous procedures 1,2. Epidemiology The peak incidence is ...
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Subdural hematohygroma

Subdural hematohygromas are subdural hygromas into which bleeding has occurred. They are distinct from, and should not be confused with, acute on chronic subdural hematomas or with acute subdural hematomas with separation of blood into plasma and hematocrit. Radiographic features CT Subdural ...
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Image compression

Image compression is a technique applied to digital images to decrease the amount of space required to store an image and increase the speed with which the image can be retrieved or transmitted. Compression may be lossless or lossy: lossless compression retains all original data, for example P...
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Eden-Hybinette procedure

The Eden-Hybinette procedure is the most common surgery for revision of a failed Latarjet procedure. When there are greater degrees of glenoid bone loss, the Latarjet procedure may not be sufficient to ensure adequate stability. This is an open or arthroscopic procedure that uses an iliac crest ...
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Point shear wave elastography

Point shear wave elastography (pSWE) is a type of shear wave elastography using ultrasound machine where an acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) is used to generate shear waves in targeted area of liver tissue.
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Non-expandable lung

Non-expandable lung results from failure of the lung to re-expand even despite a therapeutic measure such as insertion of a chest tube. This can include two semantically similar but slightly different terms: trapped lung: non-expandable lung due to remote / prior pleural inflammation lung entr...
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Pontine autosomal dominant microangiopathy with leukoencephalopathy (PADMAL)

Pontine autosomal dominant microangiopathy with leukoencephalopathy (PADMAL) is an autosomal dominant monogenic COL4A1-related disorder that primarily causes cerebral small vessel disease. It is a distinct entity to COL4A1 brain small-vessel disease, but very likely on the same spectrum of disea...
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Non-atherosclerotic coronary artery disease

Non-atherosclerotic coronary artery disease or non-atherosclerotic coronary artery abnormalities are a heterogeneous group of abnormalities that can cause myocardial ischemia or sudden cardiac death with the exclusion of coronary artery disease 1-3. Epidemiology Due to the diversity non-athero...
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Epiphyseal cortical irregularity

An epiphyseal cortical irregularity is an anatomical variant featuring fragmented appearance of the distal femoral epiphysis in children. Epidemiology Epiphyseal cortical irregularity is a rare finding, accounting for 6.7% of all incidental findings on a knee radiograph series 1. It has a hig...
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Black toenail sign

The black toenail sign is a radiological sign described in mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) on MRI. The sign describes the subacute appearance of radiological correlates of stroke-like episodes, whereby there are small regions of deep cortica...
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Pediatric ankle (AP view)

The anteroposterior ankle view for pediatrics is one of three views in order to examine the distal tibia, distal fibula, proximal talus and proximal fifth metatarsal. Indications This projection demonstrates the ankle joint in its natural anatomical position. It is useful in diagnosing fractur...
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Pathria grading system of lumbar facet joint degeneration

The Pathria grading system is used to classify osteoarthritis in lumbar facet joint degeneration. Usage This grading system is based on CT findings 1,2. Classification grade 1: normal CT scan with no degenerative findings grade 2: mild joint space narrowing noted, small osteophytes grade 3...
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Arterial thoracic outlet syndrome

Arterial thoracic outlet syndrome (aTOS) is considered rarest from of thoracic outlet syndrome and can result in compression of arterial structures (especially the subclavian artery) at thoracic outlet, or superior thoracic aperture. Many of these patients may also have concurrent venous thora...
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Retropharyngeal pseudothickening

Retropharyngeal pseudothickening is a mimic of retropharyngeal soft tissue thickening caused by neck flexion (which may also exacerbate airway obstruction), swallowing, or expiration. It is important to consider when evaluating lateral cervical radiographs and sagittal cross-sectional imaging ...
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Fat containing adrenal lesions

There are numerous fat-containing adrenal lesions, often benign and non-functional 1. Benign lesions containing fat adrenal myelolipoma fat-rich adrenal adenoma adrenal lipoma adrenal teratoma adrenal angiomyolipoma adrenal hibernoma Malignant lesions may also occasionally contain fat: ...
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Signet ring (disambiguation)

The term signet ring refers to the characteristic shape of the jewelry item and in radiology and medicine may refer to the following: signet ring sign (bronchiectasis) signet ring sign (scaphoid) signet ring cells in adenocarcinoma histology such as in the rectum, appendix and ovary (Krukenbe...
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Signet ring sign (scaphoid)

The signet ring sign or cortical ring sign refers to the rounded cortex of the scaphoid tubercle on a AP or PA wrist radiograph due to rotatory subluxation from flexion of the scaphoid. It is seen in injuries of the scapholunate ligament (scapholunate dissociation) and the related perilunate and...
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Accessory transverse foramen

An accessory transverse foramen, also known as a double transverse foramen, are a second, smaller foramen in the transverse process of typical cervical vertebrae 1. They are smaller than the transverse foramen, and may be unilateral or bilateral. Small studies have suggested a prevalence of 8-...
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Cysts of Hattori

Cysts of Hattori, also known as posterior mediastinal paravertebral Müllerian cysts, are mediastinal cysts of Mullerian origin, lined by ciliated non-stratified cuboidal to columnar epithelium, that occur in the posterior mediastinum. Epidemiology Of all mediastinal masses, ~20% (range 10–30...
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Extradural spinal cavernous malformation

Extradural spinal cavernous malformations, also known as extradural spinal cavernomas, are rare vascular malformations that occur in the spine.  This article specifically relates to extradural spinal cavernomas. For a general discussion of spinal cord cavernomas please refer to the article spin...
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Arthritis

Arthritis (plural: arthritides) refers to inflammation of the joints, caused by a broad range of etiologies. Terminology Arthropathy is a broader term referring to any disease of the joint, whereas arthritis is a type of arthropathy specifically referring to inflammation of the joint. Patholo...
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Subarachnoid lymphatic-like membrane

The subarachnoid lymphatic-like membrane (SLYM) is a recently discovered fourth meningeal layer which compartmentalizes the subarachnoid space into two functional compartments. Gross anatomy The subarachnoid lymphatic-like membrane is only a few cells thin layer, which renders it invisible usi...
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Propensity score matching

Propensity score matching is a statistical technique used with observational data to elucidate the effects of a treatment or intervention by accounting for the covariates which accompany receiving the particular treatments or interventions studied. By accounting for covariates the technique ofte...
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Body habitus

Body habitus refers to the common variations in the shape of the human body, which in turn determines the position of internal viscera. Body habitus indicates the body wall thickness and the placement of organs and hence determines technical and exposure factors for radiographic density, contra...
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Omphalomesenteric duct

The omphalomesenteric duct, also called the vitelline or vitellointestinal duct, is a communicating tract between the embryonic yolk sac and the primitive midgut. This duct is obliterated at around the 5th to 8th week of gestation. Approximately 2% of people have a failure of involution. Relat...
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Metastatic glioblastoma

Metastatic glioblastoma is a rare progression of glioblastoma, with an incidence of 0.4-0.5% of all glioblastoma cases. The locations can be extraneural, such as leptomeninges and dural venous sinuses, or both extraneural and extracranial, such as solid organs and lymph nodes. Epidemiology In ...
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Neurocysticercosis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the stages of neurocysticercosis is: Vegans Can't Get Neurocysticercosis Mnemonic V: vesicular C: colloidal vesicular G: granular nodular N: nodular calcified
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Cornuate navicular

A cornuate navicular (also termed a Geist type 3 accessory navicular) is considered a from a fused variant of accessory navicular bones. Radiographic features It may be seen as a prominent bony projection to the medial aspect of the navicular bone. Plain radiographs Seen as a prominent media...
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Component separation index

The component separation index is a value used to quantify the degree of diastasis of the rectus abdominis muscles in the context of anterior abdominal wall hernias. Usage The mode of repair of midline abdominal wall hernias (often incisional hernias through laparotomy wounds) depends on the d...
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Inhomogeneity artifact

The inhomogeneity artifact is a type of magnetic resonance imaging artifact that occurs due to multiple factors, such as irregular anatomical area (for example, shoulder, hips, ankles), presence of metallic objects or inhomogeneity of the main field. The inhomogeneity artifact appears as hyperi...
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Coated aorta sign

The coated aorta sign is a radiological sign in Erdheim–Chester disease for circumferential infiltration of the aorta, which is the most characteristic cardiovascular finding of Erdheim-Chester disease and can be detectable in a CT scan.
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Paris Classification of inflammatory bowel disease

The Paris Classification of inflammatory bowel disease is used to classify the severity of ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease in the pediatric population. Primary differences between the adult and pediatric phenotype include the location, behavior, propensity for disease extension as well as i...
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Pericardial abscess

Pericardial abscesses are a rare and severe condition in which a collection of pus forms within the pericardium, the sac that surrounds the heart 1. Epidemiology Pericardial abscesses are rare, with incidence rapidly decreasing after the development of broad-spectrum antibiotics. They can occu...
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Magnetic resonance urography

Magnetic resonance urography (MR urography) is a MRI study that predominantly used to image congenital abnormalities of the urinary system. There are two types of MR urography: static fluid-sensitive urography that is heavily T2-weighted to image the fluid-filled urinary system and excretory MR ...
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Congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face

Congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face is a very rare congenital, non-hereditary disease manifesting with prominent unilateral facial overgrowth and deformity. Clinical presentation Facial asymmetry is always noted at birth. Other findings on the affected side include: unilateral ...
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White line of Toldt

The white line of Toldt is a line formed at the junction of the lateral reflection of the posterior parietal peritoneum and the visceral peritoneum of the colon in the paracolic gutter. This represents an avascular plane used to mobilize the right and left hemicolon during hemicolectomy and is ...
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Bone surface lesions

Bone surface lesions refer to all neoplastic or neoplastic-like lesions arising from the bone surface (cortex, periosteum, and parosteal fibrous tissues) and developing outside of the bone medullary canal. Neoplastic fat-containing matrix parosteal lipoma parosteal osteoliposarcoma 2 bone m...
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Montreal classification of inflammatory bowel disease

The Montreal Classification of inflammatory bowel disease is used primarily to classify the severity of ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease based on specific categories. This can then be used to guide treatment, discern risk of complications as well as facilitate epidemiological studies 1. The...
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Centrifugal (inside-out) enhancement of liver hemangioma

Centrifugal (inside-out) enhancement of liver hemangioma are a type of atypical hepatic hemangioma, which due to its imaging features, often raises the concern of a malignant process rather than a benign one.  Epidemiology Centrifugal (inside-out) enhancement of liver hemangiomas are a relativ...
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Scapular notching

Scapular notching is a radiologic finding post reverse total shoulder arthroplasty that correlates to erosion of the scapular neck. The erosion occurs due to the repetitive contact between the polyethylene of the humeral component and the inferior scapular neck during adduction and progressive ...
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Traumatic pneumatocoele

A traumatic pneumatocoele refers to a type of pneumatocoele which occurs secondary to a traumatic event (often blunt trauma). There can be some overlap with the term "air containing pulmonary laceration". It characterized by single or multiple pulmonary cystic lesions usually accompanied by oth...
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Superior cluneal nerve entrapment

Superior cluneal nerve entrapment is a potential cause of low back pain. The nerves travel underneath the thoracolumbar fascia and within the osteofibrous tunnel of the iliac crest and this is a potential space for nerve entrapment 1,2. Clinical presentation Low back pain and radiating leg pai...
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Calcaneal apophysis

The calcaneal apophysis is the posterior secondary ossification center of the calcaneus that forms during increased weight bearing in early childhood and contributes to the formation of the calcaneal tuberosity 1. Terminology As a non-articular secondary center it is referred to as an apophysi...
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Trepanation

Trepanation or trephination, commonly known as burr holes, is the act of intentionally perforating the skull for the purpose of healing or diagnosis. Indications Emergency indications evacuation of extradural or subdural hematoma insertion of intracranial pressure monitor insertion of exter...
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Colonic atresia

Colonic atresia is a rare congenital malformation in which parts of colon are absent. Contrary to anal atresia, the anal opening is present. Multiple atretic colonic segments may occur simultaneously. Radiographic features Fluoroscopy Contrast enema typically shows no passage of contrast prox...
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Common extensor tendon injury

Common extensor tendon injuries of the elbow include partial and complete tears or detachment of the common extensor tendon origin of the elbow and are commonly associated with lateral epicondylitis 1-4. Epidemiology Common extensor tendon injuries are the most common acute tendon injuries of ...
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Acromioclavicular joint cyst

Acromioclavicular joint cysts are benign lesions, either ganglionic or synovial in etiology. Clinical presentation Soft, slightly painful mass above the acromioclavicular joint, sometimes slightly limiting shoulder range of motion. Pathology Classified into two types according to their etiol...
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Stern-Garcin variant of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

The Stern-Garcin variant of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a phenotypical variant characterized by prominent early extrapyramidal symptoms, such as parkinsonism 1. Radiographic features MRI MRI shows early involvement of the basal ganglia (striatum) and thalamus, in addition to o...
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Cerebral arteries

Cerebral arteries refers to the three paired main arteries that supply the brain. anterior cerebral arteries (ACAs) middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs) The anterior and middle cerebral arteries arise as terminal branches of the internal carotid arteries. The p...
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Anterior circulation infarction

Anterior circulation infarction describes any infarct in an area of the brain that is within the vascular territory of the anterior circulation, which includes most of the supratentorial structures excluding the occipital lobes. These structures derive their arterial supply from the internal car...
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Advanced destructive emphysema

Advanced destructive emphysema (ADE) is one of the proposed subtypes of classifying emphysema (primarily centrilobular emphysema). It is considered the most severe from and is panlobular radiolucencies characterized by hyperexpansion of secondary pulmonary lobules and distortion of pulmonary arc...
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Superior clunal nerve

The superior clunal nerve is a sensory nerve that originates from the dorsal rami of T11 – L4. The nerve travels obliquely across the buttock.  It penetrates thoracolumbar fascia at the iliac crest 1-3. Approximately, half of the nerve fibers travel within an osteofibrous tunnel of the iliac cre...
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Long head of biceps tenodesis

Long head of biceps tenodesis is a surgical procedure usually performed to address long head of biceps pain and other pathology relating to the long head of biceps tendon as well as other regional pathology such as SLAP tears. Several surgical techniques exist and almost all of them involve bi...
Article

Diatrizoate

Diatrizoate, also known as amidotrizoate, is an iodinated contrast medium. It is used as either its sodium or meglumine (N-methylglucamine) salt, or more commonly, a mixture of the two salts. Diatrizoate is one of the high-osmolar contrast media (HOCM). Terminology Diatrizoate is better known ...
Article

Pyloric atresia

Pyloric atresia is a rare congenital malformation of the stomach with complete obstruction of the pyloric lumen. In pyloric stenosis there is an incomplete obstruction of the pyloric lumen. Clinical presentation Patients present in early life with vomiting and unable to tolerate feeding. Radi...
Article

Scapulothoracic dissociation

Scapulothoracic dissociation is a rare potentially life and limb-threatening condition with high mortality characterized by disruption of the scapulothoracic articulation 1-3. Epidemiology Associations Scapulothoracic dissociation is associated with the following 2: polytrauma brachial plex...
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Quincke's triad

Quincke's triad is the finding of jaundice, right upper quadrant pain, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. This sign is seen in patients with hemobilia. History and etymology Heinrich Quincke (1842 –1922) was a German surgeon and internal medicine specialist. His principal contribution to in...
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Ankle series (pediatric)

The ankle series for pediatrics consists of an anteroposterior, mortise and a lateral projection. Depending on the child's age and the departmental protocol, the mortise view may or may not be performed. Indications trauma with suspected fracture suspected dislocation inability to w...
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Augmented glenoid implants in shoulder artroplasthy

Augmented glenoid implants in shoulder arthroplasty are used for glenohumeral osteoarthritis with Walch type B2 and B3 glenoid morphology, which are characterized by humeral head posterior subluxation 1-3. Shoulder replacement with augmentation of the glenoid implant allows for: correct glenoi...
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Von Laer classification of pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures

The Von Laer classification, also known as the Laer classification, is used to grade the severity and the need for further diagnostic evaluation and surgical correction of pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures, based on their clinical and radiological presentation. Classification Von Laer'...
Article

Weishaupt grading system of lumbar facet joint degeneration

The Weishaupt grading system is a radiological classification system used for lumbar facet joint degeneration. Usage The Weishaupt grading system for lumbar facet joint degeneration can be used in CT and/or MRI 1,2. Classification grade 0: normal facet joint width (~2-4 mm) grade 1: facet j...
Article

Amyloid myopathy

Amyloid myopathy results from the extracellular deposition of the fibrous protein amyloid within the musculoskeletal system and is a musculoskeletal manifestation of amyloidosis, particularly in patients on long-term haemodialysis. It could coexist with amyloid arthropathy. See also amyloidosi...
Article

Endosalpingiosis

Endosalpingiosis refers to the presence of ciliated, glandular epithelium resembling the inner lining of the fallopian tube located in an ectopic location. The condition may present as cystic structures usually implanted on the peritoneal serosa 1. Epidemiology Endosalpingiosis is considered a...
Article

Jewett-Strong-Marshall tumor staging system

Jewett-Strong-Marshall tumor staging system for bladder cancer is of historic interest only and has been superseded by the TNM staging system. stage 0: epithelial stage A: submucosal invasion but no involvement of muscle i.e. lamina propria stage B: bladder wall or muscle invasion B1: superf...
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Systolic and diastolic murmurs (mnemonic)

A mnemonic helpful for remembering whether a valve disorder manifests as a systolic or diastolic murmur is the following:  AP-ic DSI's SD Makes Tablets Download Swiftly Mnemonic During systole, blood flow past the heart's semilunar valves as the ventricles contract.1,2 During diastole, the op...
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Right paratracheal lymphadenopathy

Right paratracheal lymphadenopathy represents pathological involvement of any of the lymph nodes in the right upper (2R) and/or lower (4R) paratracheal nodal groups 1. These nodes are often also enlarged but this is not always the case. The commonest causes are sarcoidosis, tuberculosis and lun...
Article

Custom-made reverse shoulder arthroplasty

The customized glenoid prosthesis is a shoulder joint replacement that addresses glenoid osteoarthritis with severe glenoid bone loss. Indications Indications for custom-reverse implants are related to patient functional demand and remaining bone stock, not recommended in patients with reduced...