Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

16,075 results found
Article

Benign vs malignant pulmonary nodule

Differentiating benign from malignant pulmonary nodules is of great importance as it determines the further course of management of the patient. Benign pulmonary nodule size: the smaller the size the more likely to be benign ~80% of benign nodules are <2 cm in size. margin: smooth, regular; ...
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Protracted bacterial bronchitis

Protracted bacterial bronchitis is one of the most common causes of cough in children, particularly those aged <6 years. Is it characterised by a chronic wet cough with no associated cause and tends to respond to 2 weeks of antibiotic therapy. Epidemiology Protracted bacterial bronchitis is th...
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Von Willebrand factor

Von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a large haemostatic glycoprotein which serves several roles in platelet aggregation and the clotting cascade. Physiology vWF is synthesised by vascular endothelial cells and megakaryocytes. A series of complex post-translational modifications result in the creati...
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Normal imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging divided by body region and system. brain head and neck spine chest breast gastrointestinal genitourinary hepatobiliary upper limb lower limb paediatrics
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Pneumonitis

Pneumonitis is a broad descriptive term indicating inflammation of the lung. In clinical practice and more specifically radiology, pneumonitis refers to inflammation of the pulmonary interstitium. The term is often used interchangeably with interstitial pneumonia. Aetiology hypersensitivity pn...
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Traditional serrated adenoma

Traditional serrated adenomas are a type of premalignant serrated colonic polyp. Epidemiology They are thought to account for <1% of all colonic polyps and 1-7% of all serrated lesions. They tend to occur in older patients (usually over 50 years) with no significant gender predilection. Patho...
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Paediatric foot (medial oblique view)

The medial oblique foot view for paediatrics is one of three views performed to examine the phalanges, metatarsals and tarsal bones of the foot. Indications This projection is useful in diagnosing fractures; particularly 5th metatarsal fractures, soft tissue effusions, joint space abnormalitie...
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Cystitis

Cystitis refers to inflammation of the urinary bladder. It may occur in isolation or be associated with inflammation of other parts of the urinary tract such as ureteritis or pyelonephritis. Epidemiology Cystitis is more common in females due to the short length of the urethra and its close pr...
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Chain of infection

The chain of infection, also known as the chain of transmission, refers to the chronological sequence in which an infectious agent, and hence disease, is able to disseminate through a population. The chain results from a complex interaction between the agent, environment, and host. Typically th...
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Medial tibial crest friction syndrome

Medial tibial crest friction syndrome, also known as medial tibial condyle friction syndrome, is a rare entity characterised by the symptomatic inflammation resulting from extra-capsular friction of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) of the knee on the medial tibial crest 1-3.  Clinical prese...
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Tenosynovial giant cell tumour

Tenosynovial giant cell tumours (GCT) are a group of so-called fibrohistiocytic tumours, which are usually benign, most often arise from the synovium of joints, bursae or tendon sheaths, and show synovial differentiation 1-5. Despite identical histology, there are two subtypes that have differen...
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Saphena varix

Saphena varix refers to a dilation of the great saphenous vein at its junction with the femoral vein at the level of the groin. Epidemiology Saphena varix is a rare condition 4.  Clinical presentation  A saphena varix presents as a reducible swelling in the groin that may be confused for a f...
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Acute oesophageal necrosis

Acute oesophageal necrosis (sometimes known as Black oesophagus or oesophageal stroke), is a rare entity characterised by patchy or diffuse circumferential black pigmentation of the oesophageal mucosa from ischaemic necrosis. It is classically characterised by a striking endoscopic image of dif...
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Giant cell tumour (disambiguation)

There are a few types of giant cell tumours that may be morphologically similar but are genetically unrelated 1-3: giant cell tumour of bone giant cell tumour of soft tissue tenosynovial giant cell tumour localised tenosynovial giant cell tumour diffuse tenosynovial giant cell tumour
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Crawford classification

The Crawford classification is a system used to classify thoracoabdominal aneurysms and has important therapeutic implications. Precise classification of anatomical features allows accurate stratification of risk and appropriate operative planning 1,2.  Classification The system divides thorac...
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Duplication of the pituitary gland - plus syndrome

Duplication of the pituitary gland (DPG) is a rare developmental anomaly that may occur in an isolated fashion or in combination with other congenital craniofacial anomalies, hence, the term DPG-plus syndrome. Epidemiology Duplication of the pituitary gland is a very rare disease with a small ...
Article

Sinonasal carcinoma

Sinonasal carcinomas are a broad group of sinonasal malignant tumours that are of epithelial cell origin/lineage. Pathology Sinonasal carcinomas can be classified into various histological and aetiological subgroups: sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma: considered the most common histological s...
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Intravascular lipoma

Intravascular lipomas, also known as intravenous lipomas, are rare benign primary intravascular lesions with fatty nature 1.   Clinical presentation They are usually asymptomatic. When intravascular lipomas become large, they can cause partial obstruction and mass effect. If they occur in supe...
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Baby bird’s beak sign

The baby bird's beak sign is an antenatal ultrasound appearance formed by the pulmonary artery abnormally arising from the left ventricle in fetuses with transposition of the great arteries. In these cases, the pulmonary artery bifurcation and abnormal outflow tracts mimic the head of a baby bi...
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Flat-top talus

Flat-top talus is considered a complication of non-operative treatment of congenital talipes equinovarus (clubfoot) but can also be seen in surgically treated and non-treated patients and the aetiology is not clear 1,2. It results in reduced ankle dorsiflexion due to anterior ankle impingement f...
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Pseudo-Madelung deformity

Pseudo-Madelung deformity refers to increased radial inclination (i.e. ulnar tilt) of the distal radius but with negative ulnar variance and the absence of other typical features of Madelung deformity 1.  Pathology Pseudo-Madelung deformity can be due to 1-3: hereditary multiple exostoses po...
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Lister's tubercle fracture

Lister's tubercle fractures are a type of distal radial fracture which involves the dorsal aspect of the distal radius including Lister's tubercle. Radiographic features Plain radiograph / CT  Can be seen as a fracture and/or avulsed ossific fragment at the Lister's tubercle to varying degree...
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Leave alone lesions - breast

Breast leave alone lesions are so characteristic on mammography that further diagnostic tests such as a biopsy are unnecessary. All of these lesions are entirely benign and known as BI-RADS 2 findings: lipoma: fat density; well-defined rounded lesion oil cyst: fat density; well-defined lesion;...
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Solitary circumscribed neuroma

Solitary circumscribed neuromas, also known as palisaded encapsulated neuromas,  are benign tumours primarily occurring in the cutaneous tissues of the face, often at the mucocutaneous border 1.  Epidemiology Although they can occur at any age, there is a predilection for later middle age (40-...
Article

Oedematous breast

Oedematous breast refers to the thickening of skin and Cooper's ligaments of the breast with increased parenchymal density on mammography, which causes a coarse reticular pattern. Findings could be unilateral or bilateral, and regarding the presence or absence of inflammation/erythema, different...
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Protrusion of the infraorbital canal into the maxillary sinus

Protrusion of the infraorbital canal into the maxillary sinus is a type of variant anatomy where the infraorbital canal traverses below the level of the orbital floor and often through the maxillary sinus to varying degrees. It can be detected on sinus CT and cone beam computed tomography and it...
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Satellite sign

The satellite sign is a radiological sign seen on non-contrast CT of the brain in the setting of intracerebral haemorrhage, and refers to a small haemorrhage adjacent to, and separate from, the main haematoma. It is a predictor of haemorrhage expansion.  Epidemiology The satellite sign can be ...
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Island sign

The island sign is a radiological sign seen on non-contrast CT of the brain. It is used as a marker to predict haematoma expansion and prognosis in patients with intracerebral haemorrhage 1. It is posited that the small islands of haematomas represent multiple sources of haemorrhage from injury ...
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Superior alveolar arteries

The superior alveolar arteries is a collective term for the following arteries: posterior superior alveolar artery: branch of the maxillary artery in the pterygopalatine fossa middle superior alveolar artery: small branch of the infraorbital artery anterior superior alveolar artery: branch of...
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Middle superior alveolar artery

The middle superior alveolar artery is a branch of the infraorbital artery. It branches off along the infraorbital canal and runs inferiorly along the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus towards the region of the upper canine and lateral incisor teeth. It supplies these teeth via an anastomotic ...
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Anterior superior alveolar artery

The anterior superior alveolar artery is a small branch of the infraorbital artery. It branches off before the infraorbital artery leaves the infraorbital foramen, descending medially along the anterior aspect of the maxilla to the alveolar process. It supplies the upper medial incisors, canine...
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Cashew nut sign

The cashew nut sign is a radiological sign described in juxtacortical intracerebral haemorrhages due to cerebral venous thrombosis, typically on CT. The sign describes a small (<20 mm), concave-shaped intracerebral haemorrhage in the juxtacortical white matter, often near the bottom of a cortic...
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Paediatric foot (DP view)

The dorsoplantar foot view for paediatrics is one of three views in order to examine the phalanges, metatarsals and tarsal bones of the foot.  Indications This projection demonstrates the foot joint in its natural anatomical position. It is useful in diagnosing fractures, soft tissue effusions...
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Splenectomy

A splenectomy is the surgical removal of the spleen. This can be partial or total, however a partial splenectomy is rarely performed due to an increased risk of complications compared to a total splenectomy 1. Indications Indications for a splenectomy can be divided into absolute and relative ...
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Post-void residual

The post-void residual refers to the volume of urine that remains in the urinary bladder after micturating. It may be estimated by visualisation using ultrasound or directly measured with urethral catheterisation Clinical presentation Use of this measurement is of some utility in several disti...
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Peribronchiolar metaplasia

Peribronchiolar metaplasia is a partially recognised pathological entity characterised by fibrosis of the alveolar septa adjacent to terminal bronchioles and alveolar ducts, with bronchiolar-type epithelial metaplasia of the peribronchiolar alveolar walls. It is currently only accepted by some a...
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Decreased duodenal folds

Decreased duodenal folds may be seen on imaging modalities, particularly MR enterography, and differential diagnoses include: scleroderma - usually with duodenal dilatation coeliac disease - particularly involves the distal duodenum and jejunum Crohn disease  cystic fibrosis amyloidosis
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Nontoxic megacolon

Nontoxic megacolon refers to colonic dilatation of more than 6 cm in an adult without mural abnormality. This is in contrast to toxic megacolon, an acute complication accompanied by mural abnormalities such as thickening, loss of haustral folds, pneumatosis or free gas. The differential diagnos...
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SPACE (MRI sequence)

The SPACE MRI sequence is an abbreviation for Sampling Perfection with Application optimised Contrasts using different flip angle Evolution adopted by Siemens. SPACE is a single slab three-dimensional turbo spin echo (TSE) sequence with a slab selective, variable excitation pulse. It is useful...
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Central scar in hepatic lesions

The central scar in hepatic lesions most frequently has been described in focal nodular hyperplasia which the scar is T2 hyperintense and usually non-calcified, and fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma, where the scar is T2 hypointense and often calcified. Scars do not have to be exactly centr...
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Bowel wall fat deposition

Bowel wall fat deposition refers to the infiltration of the submucosa with fat and usually occurs in chronic processes such as inflammatory bowel disease, causing characteristic fat halo sign on CT images.  Other differential diagnoses include: normal variant - particularly in obese patients w...
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Bowel wall calcification

Bowel wall calcification is not common and can occur secondary to various mechanisms due to benign, premalignant, or malignant lesions. The differential diagnoses include:  mucinous adenocarcinoma gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) metastatic calcification - due to renal failure haemang...
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Pulmonary mycobacterium chimerae infection

Pulmonary mycobacterium chimerae infection if a rare form of non-tuberculous myobacterial infection.  Epidemiology Although rare it is recognised as an emerging opportunistic threat in patients undergoing coronary arterial bypass surgery and open heart procedures requiring extracorporeal devic...
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Uncal artery

The uncal artery is a group of small vessels providing arterial supply predominantly to the uncus. It consists of numerous terminal branches (on average 7 branches per uncus) from major intracranial arteries 1, and it is sometimes subdivided into anterior uncal arteries and posterior uncal, or u...
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Oesophageal balloon tamponade device

An oesophageal balloon tamponade device is a form of balloon catheter designed to exert direct pressure on bleeding gastro-oesophageal varices in order to obtain haemostasis. It is considered a temporizing measure in hemodynamically unstable patients in whom endoscopic (or angiographic) interven...
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Thymic calcification

Thymic calcifications are rare findings usually associated with thymoma but are also seen in other pathologies. Neoplastic thymoma - more frequent in invasive thymoma 1 thymic carcinoma multilocular thymic cyst 2 calcified metastasis Non-neoplastic anterior mediastinal amyloidosis 3 tran...
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Pulmonary haemorrhage complicating multifocal infection

Pulmonary haemorrhage complicating multifocal infection is one of the causes of diffuse pulmonary haemorrhage (and particularly diffuse alveolar haemorrhage). The type of infection can depend on immunocompetency status as well as presence of absence of concurrent vasculitic, connective tissue or...
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Bilateral hypertranslucent hemithoraces

Bilateral hypertranslucent hemithoraces is the presence of decreased density of the hemithoraces bilaterally on a plain chest radiograph. This hypertranslucency, a.k.a. hyperlucency, may be focal or diffuse 1.  Also see unilateral hypertranslucent hemithorax.  Focal pulmonary bullae localise...
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Apical chest mass

Apical chest masses are often important and may be missed, especially when examined with a plain chest radiograph. It is always recommended to perform a targeted assessment of the apices of the lungs during a chest x-ray; they are one of the classic review areas. Pathology Aetiology Commonly ...
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Migratory pulmonary consolidation

Migratory pulmonary consolidation, also known as wandering pulmonary consolidation, refer to air space opacities that change in location over time, and are characteristic of a subset of lung diseases. The differential diagnoses include: organising pneumonia 1 recurrent aspiration pneumonia e...
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Singapore Society of Radiographers

The Singapore Society of Radiographers (SSR) is the professional body representing 1 diagnostic radiographers, radiation therapists, sonographers and nuclear medicine technologists in Singapore. The SSR works with government-level boards to maintain updated continuous professional development in...
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Heat-related illness

Heat-related illnesses are on the increase due to increasing global temperatures. The normal physiological response to excessive heat is known as heat stress and although uncomfortable is generally not considered pathological. If this is not alleviated, then a true heat illness may result, which...
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Carotid arteries

The carotid arteries is used as a collective term for: common carotid artery (CCA) and its two terminal branches external carotid artery (ECA) internal carotid artery (ICA) These arteries provide the vast majority of the arterial supply to the head and neck region and central nervous system...
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Faeces

Faeces, also known as stool, is the solid component of human waste. Almost half of its dry mass is bacterial biomass, with the remainder comprised of undigested dietary matter, exfoliated cells of the gut, intestinal secretions, small metabolites and mucus.  Composition Faecal matter is semiso...
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Anterior inferior cerebellar artery loop

Anterior inferior cerebellar artery loop or AICA loop refers to an aberrant course of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) that enters the internal auditory meatus and loops over the 7th and 8th cranial nerves. This has been associated with audiological, vestibular, and facial symptoms...
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Suspensory ligaments of the middle ear ossicles

The suspensory ligaments of the middle ear ossicles are ligaments within the middle ear which attach the ossicles to the walls of the mesotympanum 1. The ligaments help the ossicles transmit sound from the tympanic membrane to the oval window. Gross anatomy Origins and insertions of the suspen...
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Acceleration index

Acceleration index is an indirect sonographic sign to assess renal artery stenosis 1. Usage Acceleration index is used in the Doppler assessment of the renal arteries when assessing for renal artery stenosis. Measurement Acceleration index is calculated by subtracting the initial systolic ve...
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Gastrocolic fistula

A gastrocolic fistula (plural: fistulas/fistulae), also known as cologastric fistula, is a rare form of gut fistulisation between the stomach and the colon. Terminology Gastrocolic fistula, is much more common in the literature than its synonym cologastric fistula, which is in line with the co...
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Subtalar arthroereisis

Subtalar arthroereisis is a non-fusion surgical treatment of paediatric symptomatic flexible flatfoot (pes planus). The procedure involves the insertion of an implant into the subtalar joint to correct excessive hindfoot eversion. Procedure There are two techniques for subtalar arthroereisis 1...
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Layer cake skull

The layer cake skull refers to the appearance of diffuse calvarial hyperostosis in a distinct concentric pattern deep to the inner table of the skull. It is a relatively common imaging finding in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension seen in up to 14% of patients according to a larg...
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Athelia

Athelia is a rare congenital condition characterised by the absence of the nipple. This may occur unilaterally or bilaterally. Associations Poland syndrome ectodermal dysplasia 2
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Spinal cord tuberculoma

Spinal cord tuberculomas are rare compared to intracranial tuberculomas and can be challenging to diagnose particularly in individuals who are not from endemic areas.  Epidemiology Only 0.2% of central nervous system tuberculosis shows evidence of spinal cord involvement, and among tuberculosi...
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Enhanced myometrial vascularity

Enhanced myometrial vascularity (EMV), often misdiagnosed as an acquired uterine arteriovenous malformation, is the presence of transiently increased blood flow within the uterine myometrium, typically associated with complications of pregnancy.  Terminology Somewhat confusingly, the term “enh...
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Pseudokidney sign (disambiguation)

The pseudokidney sign is used to describe more than one radiological pathology. pseudokidney (intussuception) pseudokidney (colonic carcinoma)
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Lacrimal gland prolapse

Lacrimal gland prolapse, also known as lacrimal gland displacement or lacrimal gland dislocation, is defined as significant herniation of the lacrimal gland outside the lacrimal fossa. It is an underrecognized clinical condition that needs to be differentiated from mass lesions in the preseptal ...
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Pseudokidney sign (colonic carcinoma)

The pseudokidney sign is a non-specific sonographic sign that describes the reniform shape of a mass with a hypoechoic region (representing bowel wall thickening) surrounding a central hyperechoic portion or echogenic stripe (which represents the apposition of the mucosal surfaces) 1,2.  It can...
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Gastropancreatic fistula

A gastropancreatic fistula is a rare form of gut fistulation where there is a fistulous communication between the stomach and the pancreas. It has been described in association with chronic pancreatitis 1 / severe pancreatitis intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) 4 peptic ulcers 2 ...
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Isolated insular infarct

An isolated insular infarct is a form of insular infarct where the infarct is confined to the insular cortex or region supplied by the long insular artery. Infarcts in insula can additionally by supplied by the MCA branches as well as the lenticulostriate branches. Clinical presentation An iso...
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Effect of insulin on FDG-PET

Insulin administration has an effect on FDG-PET by affecting the biodistribution of the radiotracer, F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), the FDG organic ligand being an analogue of glucose, posing a challenge for imaging those with diabetes mellitus. FDG-PET-CT is a hybrid imaging modality commonly ...
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Pseudoproptosis

Pseudoproptosis is a situation where the eye can have a proptotic anatomic appearance but without any mass effect from a lesion displacing the globe or any underlying pathology. Instances where this can occur include buphthalmos: as a result of congenital glaucoma or severe myopia contralatera...
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Track vs tract

The terms track and tract are commonly mixed up in radiology and medicine (and often English more generally). Track Track in medicine refers to an artificially created path through something, a typical example being a "needle track" which is the narrow channel formed when a needle is inserted ...
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VEXAS syndrome

VEXAS (vacuoles, E1 enzyme, X-linked, autoinflammatory, somatic) syndrome is a severe, treatment-refractory, monogenic, multiorgan, autoinflammatory condition with vasculitic and haematological complications. Epidemiology VEXAS syndrome is likely to be rare, but also likely to be underdiagnose...
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Donohue syndrome

Donohue syndrome, also known as leprechaunism, is a rare autosomal recessive form of insulin resistance syndrome with a distinctive phenotype including elfin facies and severe disturbances of glucose homoeostasis. It is universally fatal in early childhood. Epidemiology Donohue syndrome is ver...
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Nail unit (anatomy)

The nail unit or nail apparatus refers to a group of distal digital structures involved in the function and support of the nail plate. Gross anatomy Structures of the distal phalanx composing the nail unit include 1: nail plate nail matrix nail bed periungual soft tissues eponychium (cuti...
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Post-TARE assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma

Post-TARE (transarterial radioembolisation) assessment of hepatocellular carcinomas is essential for evaluating the success of the therapy.  Hepatocellular carcinomas that are not amenable to definitive therapy with thermal ablation or resection can be treated with trans-arterial radioembolisat...
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Supraopticohypophyseal tract

The supraopticohypophyseal tract (TA: tractus supraopticohypophysialis) is one of the two major hypothalamohypophyseal neurosecretory tracts connecting the supraoptic nucleus and the paraventricular nucleus in the hypothalamus with the posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis). Gross anatomy Intra...
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Soft tissue mass

Soft tissue masses or lesions are a common medical condition seen by primary care physicians, family physicians, surgeons and orthopaedists. They include all soft tissue outgrowths benign and malignant 1-3. Epidemiology Soft tissue masses are very common, with benign lesions being much more fr...
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Foot series (paediatric)

The foot series for paediatrics consists of a dorsoplantar (DP), medial oblique and a lateral projection. Depending on the child's age and the departmental protocol, the medial oblique view may or may not be performed. Indications trauma with suspected fracture suspected dislocation foreign ...
Article

Elfin facies

Elfin facies refers to a characteristic facial appearance seen in certain rare congenital syndromes. Terminology Elfin facies is sometimes used synonymously with Williams syndrome and the latter is occasionally called elfin facies syndrome. However elfin facies is seen with other rare genetic ...
Article

Post-TACE assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma

Post-TACE assessment of hepatocellular carcinomas is essential for evaluating the success of the therapy.  Hepatocellular carcinomas that are not amenable to definitive therapy with thermal ablation or resection can be treated with trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE). The end goal may be pa...
Article

Ulnar bow sign

The ulnar bow sign is a radiographic indication of a plastic deformity of the ulna, its assessment is quite useful in the case of a suspected "isolated" radial head dislocation in the paediatric population 1,3. "Isolated" dislocation of the radial head is almost always in fact associated with a...
Article

Platypnoea-orthodeoxia syndrome

Platypnoea-orthodeoxia syndrome refers to the concomitant occurrence of dyspnoea and hypoxaemia, respectively, which are precipitated by assuming an upright position and alleviated by assuming a recumbent position 4. Clinical presentation As the name of the syndrome suggests, the hallmark clin...
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Anococcygeal raphe

The anococcygeal raphe (plural: anococcygeal raphes or raphae) refers to the midline structure that connects the anorectal junction to the coccyx. It is composed of bilateral interdigitating fibres from the iliococcygeal and pubococcygeal muscles. The anococcygeal raphe is a thin, linear struct...
Article

PET-CT (overview)

PET-CT imaging is a form of dual-modality imaging that utilises the advantages of both positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT).  PET imaging excels at detailing physiologic or biologic phenomena through the administration of positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. The bi...
Article

Cerebellomedullary cisterns

Cerebellomedullary cisterns are basal cisterns located laterally and posteriorly around the medulla, between it and the adjacent cerebellum.  They are divided into paired lateral cerebellomedullary cisterns (located on either side of the medulla, directly inferior to the cerebellopontine cister...
Article

Saturday night retinopathy

Saturday night retinopathy is an acute ischaemic retinopathy, choroidopathy, and orbitopathy secondary to prolonged ocular pressure during a drug-induced stupor. Epidemiology While monocular blindness as a complication of prolonged headrest use in prone neurosurgical procedures has been widely...
Article

Bright tongue sign

The bright tongue sign is a radiological sign most commonly described in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with bulbar involvement 1,2. However, this sign is not pathognomonic, and may be seen with other myopathies or neuropathies with tongue or bulbar involvement (e.g. Kennedy disease, Pompe diseas...
Article

Osteolytic bone lesion

Osteolytic lesions, lytic or lucent bone lesions are descriptive terms for lesions that replace normal bone or with a vast proportion showing a lower density or attenuation than the normal cancellous bone. This comprises lesions with fatty liquid and solid soft tissue components. Pathology Luc...
Article

RNA

RNA (ribonucleic acid) is one of the two major nucleic acids in biological cells, the other being DNA; unlike DNA, RNA is single-stranded. The composition of the nucleotides and nucleosides is also partly different due to variations in the monosaccharide and base constituents: D-ribose sugar rep...
Article

Spontaneous retropharyngeal haemorrhage

Spontaneous retropharyngeal haemorrhage, also known as spontaneous retropharyngeal haematoma, describes an accumulation of blood in the retropharyngeal space. It is a rare but potentially fatal entity due to potential for acute airway obstruction and/or rapid internal bleeding. Epidemiology Sp...
Article

Accessory muscles of respiration

Accessory muscles of respiration refer to muscles that provide assistance to the main breathing muscles, mainly when additional power is needed, for example during exercise or those with airway pathologies (e.g. COPD) 1,2. During normal quiet breathing, inspiration is an active process primaril...
Article

Mixed density bone lesion

The term mixed density bone lesion is used to describe lesions with a combination of osteolytic and osteosclerotic components within or adjacent to cancellous bone. The amount of osteolytic and osteoblastic areas within the lesion remains more or less subjective 1. Differential diagnosis Simil...
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Scalene muscles

The scalene muscles are a group of three closely related neck muscles. anterior scalene muscles middle scalene muscles posterior scalene muscles Summary origin: transverse processes of mid to lower cervical vertebrae insertion: first or second ribs blood supply: ascending cervical artery ...

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