What are the two commonly used staging systems for colorectal carcinoma?
TNM and Duke's (outdated but still often used).
What is the umbilical nodule known as, and who was this person?
Sister Mary Joseph nodule represents a metastatic lesion involving the umbilicus. The most common primary source is an intra-abdominal adenocarcinoma. Sister Mary Joseph (born Julia Dempsey, 1856 - 1939) was the surgical assistant to William Mayo in the early days of the Mayo Clinic,
CT of the abdomen and pelvis obtained with oral and intravenous contrast demonstrates a focal thickening of the sigmoid colon with stenosis of the lumen but no evidence of an established obstruction. No clear fat plane between the mass and the rectus muscle is identified although there is no convincing evidence of direct extension.
A number of enlarged local lymph nodes are seen in the adjacent mesentery. No convincingly enlarged retroperitoneal nodes are noted, however an umbilical nodule is present.
The liver contains a number of low attenuation ill-defined lesion, the largest in segment 5.
Simple left renal cyst noted. Lungs and mediastinum appear unremarkable (although lung windows should of course be reviewed for small deposits).