Anterior cruciate ligament injury (illustrations)
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This diagram demonstrates a complete ACL tear (figure 1) and ACL avulsion (figure 2) with the arrows indicating the "pivot-shift" twisting mechanism of the knee. Under stress, (classically with athletic activity) this motion may result in an ACL tear. In children, avulsion fracture of the tibial insertion of the ACL is not uncommon.
See article: Anterior cruciate ligament tear
- Robertson PL, Schweitzer ME, Bartolozzi AR et-al. Anterior cruciate ligament tears: evaluation of multiple signs with MR imaging. Radiology. 1994;193 (3): 829-34. Radiology (abstract) - Pubmed citation
- Kendall NS, Hsu SY, Chan KM. Fracture of the tibial spine in adults and children. A review of 31 cases. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1992;74 (6): 848-52. Pubmed citation