The caudal regression syndrome is resulting from insult to the early stages of gestation. This is common to an infants born in diabetic mothers 1.
Caudal regression syndrome is two types.
- type 1:
- characterized by club shaped or wedge shaped conus medullaris abruptly ending above the lower border of the L1 vertebra
- associated with major sacral dysgenesis, in severe cases last intact vertebra is at T11 or T12 level 2
- usually presented with motor weakness and/or urinary and bowel symptoms 1
- usually lumbosacral neurological sensation is less affected 1
- type 2:
- characterized by low lying tethered cord in which conus ends caudal to lower border of L1
- sacral agenesis is usually less severe
- associated with severe neurological disturbances with deterioration 1
Prognosis is depending on severity of the condition and presence of associated anomalies 2.