Classification of ACL avulsion fractures (diagram)

Case contributed by Matt Skalski

Presentation

Not applicable

Patient Data

Age: Not applicable

Type 1 - minimally/non-displaced fragment

Type 2 -  anterior elevation of the fragment

Type 3 - complete seperation of the fragment. 3b - Involves the majority of the eminence. 

Type 4 - comminuted avulsion or a rotation of the fragment.

Case Discussion

These illustrations are based on the Meyers and McKeever classification system.

  • Type 1 - minimally/non-displaced fragment
  • Type 2 -  anterior elevation of the fragment
  • Type 3 - complete separation of the fragment. 3b - Involves the majority of the eminence. 
  • Type 4 - comminuted avulsion or a rotation of the fragment.

I've lightly indicated a type 4 "b" to show a rotational type 4 in contrast to the comminuted type 4. No type 4b has been described in the literature. Both rotated fragments and comminuted avulsions have been referred to as just "type 4." 

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