Case contributed by Stefan Tigges

This brief visual tutorial is intended to provide an intuitive understanding of confounding. Make sure to cement your knowledge of this difficult material by answering the quiz question!

A longer discussion of confounding as well as a discussion of bias and interaction is available here:

How to use cases

You can use Radiopaedia cases in a variety of ways to help you learn and teach.

Creating your own cases is easy.

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.