Croup - virtual bronchoscopy

Case contributed by Dr Dalia Ibrahim


Acute respiratory distress, barking cough and inspiratory stridor.

Patient Data

Age: 1-year-old
Gender: Male
Modality: CT

Narrowing of the glottic and subglottic regions (giving the steeple sign) by circumferential mucosal thickening encroaching upon its lumen.

Enlarged nasophayrngeal adenoids encroaching upon the nasopharyngeal air column.

Modality: Annotated image

Comparison between normal CT virtual bronchoscopy and a CT virtual bronchoscopy for a case of croup.

Narrowing of the glottic and subglottic regions (giving the steeple sign).

Case Discussion

This is a case of a clinically proven croup. Croup, also known as acute laryngotracheobronchitis, is an upper airway infection by parainfluenza virus or respiratory syncytial virus. On imaging, it classically presents with a narrowing of the subglottic airway and ballooning of the hypopharynx. The narrowed subglottic airway (upper trachea) may resemble a church steeple (steeple sign or wine bottle sign) due to its tapered appearance.

Differential diagnosis include:

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Case Information

rID: 48468
Case created: 7th Oct 2016
Last edited: 23rd Dec 2016
System: Head & Neck
Inclusion in quiz mode: Included

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