Diffuse bony sclerosis - endemic skeletal fluorosis
22 Y/O patient from Maaco - west azarbayjan - Iran (which is a city with high levels of fluoride in drinking water. )
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Diffuse bony sclerosis is seen with hyperdense renal parenchyma . Severe kyphosis also is noted.
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The findings ( in a patient with high levels of drinking water fluoride ) are consistent with fluorosis.
Endemic skeletal fluorosis is a chronic metabolic bone disease caused by ingestion of large amounts of fluoride through either water or food in geographic areas where high levels of fluoride occur naturally.
Most of the radiologic features of this disease have already been described and include :
- increased bone density
- blurring or haziness of trabeculae
- compact bone thickening
- periosteal bone formation and
- ossification of the attachments of tendons, ligaments, and muscles
- 1. Wang Y, Yin Y, Gilula LA et-al. Endemic fluorosis of the skeleton: radiographic features in 127 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1994;162 (1): 93-8. AJR Am J Roentgenol (abstract) - Pubmed citation
- 2. Mithal A, Trivedi N, Gupta SK et-al. Radiological spectrum of endemic fluorosis: relationship with calcium intake. Skeletal Radiol. 1993;22 (4): 257-61. Pubmed citation
- 3. Lian ZC, Wu EH. Osteoporosis-an early radiographic sign of endemic fluorosis. Skeletal Radiol. 1986;15 (5): 350-3. Pubmed citation