Enchondroma

Case contributed by Dr Bruno Di Muzio

Presentation

Incidental finding on radiograph.

Patient Data

Age: 44-year-old
Gender: Female
X-ray

Left ankle radiographs

There is a small eccentric geographic lytic lesion within the lateral aspect of the distal tibia, showing thin sharp sclerotic margins and punctate calcifications suggesting chondroid matrix. 

CT

CT Left ankle

In the posterolateral aspect of the distal left tibia, an eccentric cortically based lucent lesion is noted. This is not expansive. It has a benign appearance with mild cortical thinning. There are a few small opacities noted within it which may be fibrous or residual bone. No associated soft tissue mass, calcification or periosteal reaction is seen. 

CT

CT-guided biopsy

In consultation with the tumour surgeon, a route was chosen to transverse the EDL muscle. A bonopty kit was used, intravenous sedation and local anaesthesia. 2 passes traversing the centre of the lesion into the medulla on the other side. Bone and soft tissue cores in contiguity were obtained, placed in formalin. Biopsy track marked with sterile carbon up to the skin.

MRI

MRI - Targeted study

The low-grade chondral lesion, abuts, mildly scallops the anterior and medial cortex of the distal tibial diaphysis, is unchanged in size. There is no extraosseous extension or periosteal reaction. Enhancement pattern is consistent with a low-grade lesion with no dedifferentiation detected. There is faint fascial thickening over extensor digitorum longus at the level of the tumour consistent with the biopsy path scarring, with no nodularity of this area seen. This lesion measures 12 mm in cross-section and 16 mm in length. No skip lesions are seen the rest of the tibia or the adjacent fibula. Longitudinal split tear of the peroneus brevis is noted. 

Case Discussion

MACROSCOPIC DESCRIPTION: "Left distal tibia bone biopsy": Three fragments of firm red tissue 2-4mm in maximum dimension received with a separate fragment of firm pale tan tissue 4mm in maximum dimension. A1.

MICROSCOPIC DESCRIPTION: The fragmented biopsies contain islands of cartilage, which appear to be surrounded by lamellar cortical bone. There is no invasion through the cortex. The chondrocytes show no significant nuclear atypia. Binucleated cells are absent. There are no mitoses or necrosis. Myxoid change is absent in the background. The overall features are consistent with an enchondroma. No evidence of malignancy is identified. Radiological correlation is recommended.

DIAGNOSIS: Left distal tibia: Features consistent with enchondroma.

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Case information

rID: 53002
Case created: 28th Apr 2017
Last edited: 22nd Jun 2017
Tag: rmh
Inclusion in quiz mode: Included

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