Glioblastoma

Case contributed by Dr Bruno Di Muzio

Presentation

Seizure and left sided weakness.

Patient Data

Age: 74
Gender: Female

CT Brain

Modality: CT

Pre and post-contrast CT images demonstrating a large heterogeneous mass within the left thalamus and basal ganglia, characterised by prominent rim enhancement and central hypoattenuating/necrotic component, and promoting mass effect with left lateral ventricle compression, midline shift and slight uncal herniation. Surrounding oedema is also present. 

MRI Brain

Modality: MRI

 

The patient found it difficult to remain still; as a result many sequences are severely degraded by motion artefact. MR spectroscopy could not be performed.

There is a large intra-axial mass centred on the left thalamus and basal nuclei.

This demonstrates areas of irregular nodular contrast enhancement with central areas of non-enhancement. The enhancing margin shows diffusion restriction and increased perfusion. There is surrounding abnormal FLAIR hyperintensity extending into the white matter of the frontal and temporal lobes, left insula, inferiorly into the left and across midline into the right thalamus.

There is marked mass effect on the third ventricle, dilation of both lateral ventricles, and periventricular FLAIR hyperintensity in keeping with transependymal fluid shift.

Conclusion:

Mass consistent with high-grade glial series tumour centred on left thalamus with extension into the right thalamus. Mass-effect on the third ventricle causing obstructive hydrocephalus.

Case Discussion

The patient was submitted to a tumour stereotactic biopsy and the suspected diagnosis was confirmed in the histology analysis: 

MICROSCOPIC DESCRIPTION: 1&2. The sections shows small fragments of a densely hypercellular glial tumour. This is composed predominantly of markedly pleomorphic astrocytic cells with fibrillary morphology. A quantitatively smaller component of pleomorphic oligodendroglial cells is also noted. Scattered mitotic figures are identified. There is focal microvascular proliferation with multilayering of atypical cells around vessel lumena. Areas of necrosis are also seen. These incorporate thin walled necrotic blood vessels.

IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY:

  • GFAP positive in tumour and reactive astrocytes; negative in oligodendroglial cells.
  • NogoA positive in oligodendroglial cells, negative in tumour and reactive astrocytes.
  • Nestin positive (high)
  • IDH-1 R132H negative (not mutated)
  • ATRX positive (not mutated)
  • MGMT negative (likely methylated)
  • p53 positive
  • Topoisomerase labelling index: Approximately 40%. The features are of IDH-1 wild type glioblastoma multiforme.

DIAGNOSIS: 1&2: Left thalamic tumour: IDH-1 wild-type glioblastoma multiforme (WHO Grade IV).

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Case Information

rID: 40573
Case created: 26th Oct 2015
Last edited: 31st Oct 2015
Tag: rmh
Inclusion in quiz mode: Included

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