Glioblastoma and demyelination

Case contributed by RMH Neuropathology

Presentation

2 weeks of expressive and receptive dysphasia.

Patient Data

Age: 64
Gender: Male
Modality: MRI

Within the left superior temporal gyrus there is a 2.5 x 2.6 x 2.3 cm rim enhancing lesion - localising to grey-white interface rather than cortex. The lesion is heterogeneous on T1 and T2 weighted sequences with moderate diffusion restriction identified throughout. On susceptibility imaging, a complete hypointense rim is not identified. There is increased rCBV within the enhancing portion of the lesion.

Spectroscopy demonstrates elevated lactate peak and markedly depressed NAA within the non-enhancing central portion of the lesion. At the periphery of the lesion, there is moderate NAA reduction, but choline peak assessment is limited by a wandering baseline.

There is extensive surrounding white matter T2 hyperintensity in keeping with vasogenic oedema. There is resultant mass-effect with effacement of the left temporoparietal sulci and minor effacement of the left lateral ventricle. No hydrocephalus or midline shift. The basal cisterns are preserved.

No other lesion identified.

Conclusion:

Peripherally enhancing mass within the left superior temporal gyrus with surrounding vasogenic oedema. The main differential is between metastasis and GBM.

Although there is diffusion restriction of the lesion, this is not isolated to the central non-enhancing component, and the thick irregular rind favours tumour over abscess.

Histology

Modality: Pathology

MICROSCOPIC DESCRIPTION:

The sections show densely hypercellular tissue fragments composed of a mixture of CD68+ monocyte macrophages and astrocytic cells which show moderate to marked nuclear and cellular pleomorphism. Both cell types are arranged in diffuse sheets. There is prominent microvascular proliferation with multilayering of endothelial cells which also show nuclear and cellular pleomorphism. Endothelial cell mitoses are noted.

There are a moderate number of Creutzfeldt astrocytes. Mitotic figures are identified in atypical atrocytic cells. A fragment of necrotic tissue is present with neutrophilic infiltration of the immediately adjacent viable tissue. Collections of CD3+ lymphocytes are noted within and adjacent to the walls of some blood vessels. Extensive loss of myelin is identified in a Luxol Fast Blue stained section and granular LFB+ material is seen in the cytoplasm of macrophages. Preservation of axons is seen in a Bodian stained section.

IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY:

  • GFAP positive in atypical and reactive astrocytes and
  • Creutzfeldt cells.
  • Nestin positive
  • IDH-1 negative
  • p53 positive
  • p16 negative

Topoisomerase labelling index: Approximately 12%

FINAL DIAGNOSIS:

Left temporal lesion: Features favouring glioblastoma multiforme (WHO Grade IV) 

 

COMMENT:

These are difficult biopsies to interpret with apparent overlapping features of demyelination (loss of myelin on Luxol Fast Blue staining, axonal preservation, perivascular T lymphocyte aggregation; presence of Creutzfeldt astrocytes) and high grade astrocytoma (astrocyte pleomorphism, mitotic figures, microvascular proliferation and necrosis).

PlayAdd to Share

Case Information

rID: 29635
Case created: 10th Jun 2014
Last edited: 5th Dec 2015
Inclusion in quiz mode: Included

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.