Neutropenic enteritis

Case contributed by Dr Vikas Shah

Presentation

Aplastic anemia, recent bone marrow transplant. Vomiting and abdominal pain.

Patient Data

Age: 40 years
Gender: Female
CT

The small bowel, except the duodenum, appears inflamed with mural thickening, mucosal and serosal hyperenhancement and intervening low density due to edema. The mesentery is congested. The cecum and remainder of the large bowel appear relatively normal. No fluid collections and no perforation. No other abnormalities.

Case Discussion

Small bowel inflammation can occur in the setting of neutropenia, either primary in bone marrow failure or secondary to chemotherapy. It is more commonly known as neutropenic enterocolitis, with a form localized to the cecum known as typhlitis

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