Pediatric pneumothorax

Case contributed by Abdelazziz Ibrahim
Diagnosis almost certain

Presentation

Respiratory distress.

Patient Data

Age: 7 weeks
Gender: Male

Chest

x-ray

There is a large pneumothorax identified on the left side with collapse of the left lung and depression of the left hemidiaphragm. Mild mediastinal shift is also noted when compared to the prior study.

The right lung shows chronic pulmonary opacities.

Case Discussion

There are different types of pneumothorax, including primary spontaneous pneumothorax (occurring without any underlying lung disease), secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (occurring in the setting of underlying lung disease), and traumatic pneumothorax (occurring as a result of chest trauma).

Risk factors for pneumothorax include smoking, lung disease, family history, and certain medical procedures such as mechanical ventilation and lung biopsy.

In some cases, the underlying cause of pneumothorax may need to be addressed in addition to treating the pneumothorax itself.

Management of a pneumothorax may involve oxygen supplementation, pain control, and monitoring for complications such as infection or recurrence.

Complications of pneumothorax may include recurrent pneumothorax, pleural effusion, and tension pneumothorax.

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